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Russia is one of the Super Power in the World. It won Second World War along with US and Great Britain in 1945. It tackled Cold War about 45 years (1945 to 1990) against US, but the then President of Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev ended Cold War and Soviet Union broke into 15 Independent Nations (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan) from 18th August 1991 to 31st December 1991. All these had started December 1989 when US President George Bush met with Soviet Union President Mikhail Gorbachev in Malta. US President wanted democratic system in all Soviet Union. It was also a big demand of Capitalists for investing in Soviet Union. Before this, on November 1989, Berlin wall was collapsed and eradicated Communist Government from East Germany. It had created more pressure on Soviet Union President Mikhail Gorbachev to liberalise demand of Democratic People.  In 1992, Boris Yeltsin became the first President of Separated Russia.

Ukraine is one of them who became Independent Nations, but its pace of working is too much high. Within three years, it had been a threat of Russia. It restored Soviet Union’s Nuclear Weapons with the help Western Nations like US and Great Britain in 1992. Its Nuclear Weapons was belonged to Soviet Union (Now Russia). NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) also gave full support to Ukraine to disturb peace of Russia. Russia took control on its Nuclear Weapons and destroyed it by 1998. Although Ukraine signed treaty on NPT (Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons) in 1994. It was only to destroy its Nuclear Weapons, but Russia took control on it. Ukraine did splendid works for its growth, but Western Nations used Ukraine to challenge Russia. Ukraine struck itself in its web. Bilateral Relation between Russia and Ukraine is not good from when Ukraine made itself as an independent nation. In 2014, Russia captured Crimean Peninsula with the help of Pro-Russia Separatists without sending its troops. Russia annexed Crimea into Russian Federation. Now Russia also encourages Pro-Russian Separatists of Donetsk and Luhansk (Both are state of Ukraine) to annexed both states into Russia. Russia does not create any hurdle to other separated Nations from Soviet Union, but why only Ukraine. Reason is that Ukraine plays itself with the hands of US and Great Britain which is an immediate danger and threat for Russia. Ukraine does not follow the treaty which was made at the separation time.  Almost 30 thousand people was killed in Donetsk and Luhansk by 2020. Ukraine had a president who was Pro-Russian. This was Viktor Yanukovych but he was ousted from office due to failure of Crimea issue. He was also Pro-Russian so why he would try not to annex Crimea into Russia.

Although Economy of Ukraine is in good shape. After Crimean Annexation, it was very challenging for Ukraine to stand itself, they did it. Agricultural Goods Production was on record high. If Russia captures Ukraine, it will dominate area of Black Sea. It will take a lot of advantages on its Seaport. Ukraine sells grains to Africans and Gulf Nations. Russia will sell it to these nations. Fertility of Ukrainian soil is also a reason to attack on Ukraine. It is long term plan as Crimea was annexed to keep such agenda in the think tank of Russia. Stalin killed about 4 million people to keep control Ukraine Agriculture in 1932-33. During Second World War, Hitler did not invade on Russia for victory, but wanted only fertile agriculture soil of Ukraine. At present, Russia has unlimited crude oil, but due to shortage of Money, Russia cannot export as it wants.  Industry for Sophisticated Weapons is also doing well. Education Sector of Ukraine is an inspiration for other nations. Lakhs of Indian students pursue their medical degree in Ukraine. In 2019, Ukraine elected a TV Artist Volodymyr Zelenskyy as President of Ukraine. He rooted out Corruption from Ukraine, but he also started to play in the hands of Western Powers. He passed a law in the Parliament of Ukraine to be joint in NATO Forces. After passing this law, He requested NATO to join NATO. This step of Ukraine President Volodymyr Zelenskyy was clear threat for Russia. Russian President began to plan attack on Ukraine. US, France, Germany, and Great Britain produced more and more pressure on Russian President Vladimir Putin not to attack on Ukraine. US President made personal attack on Russian President. Western Nations started to sanction on Russian Trade and Banks.

At last Russia stood its army on the border of Ukraine along with border of Ukraine with Belarus. Belarus always supported Russia. NATO accused Russia to attack on Russia on mis-interpretation for joining NATO to Ukraine. Russian President Vladimir Putin criticised NATO for its expansion policy and called out to be barred Ukraine for joining NATO. ON 21st February 2022, Russian officially recognized the Donetsk People’s Republic and the Luhansk People’s Republic and openly sent Russian Army into area of Controlled Pro-Russian Separatists. After three days, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced a SPECIAL MILITARY OPERATION in Ukraine. Russian troops entered in Ukraine Eastern and Southern Side. From Northern Side from Belarus side, Attack took place in border area of Ukraine. Russian invasion on Ukraine was criticised badly by World Leaders. But Invasion was continued. Neither US, Great Britain, France, etc. nor NATO came to rescue to Ukraine. Only announcement and speech were done. Heavy Sanctions were imposed on Russia along with Belarus. But it all was in vein. Western Nations abandoned Ukraine during its hardest time. Ukraine President Vladymyr Zelensky called on World Leaders to be stopped war, but nobody was able to stop it. Russian President Vladimir Putin told World Leaders that it was their internal matter and security threat when Ukraine would join NATO. When Cold War is finished and won by US, so why expansion of such military organization in that area. NATO must be nullified. Soviet Union already broke into 15 Nations. India and China both made themselves indifferent from that issue. Only Russia came to rescue India at SECURTY COUNCIL in UN whenever India needs VETO POWER against Terrorism. US, France, and Great Britain become indifferent for India and China openly supports Pakistan and always saves for blacklisting for Pakistan’s Terrorists who continuously plan to attack Mumbai – like terror attack on India soil. Russia take side of India. That is why, India has very good diplomatic ties with Russia and China wants to do such invasion on Taiwan.

Russian has extreme desire to include itself as a super power as before 1990. To become once again a super power, Russia needs a robust economy. For robust economy, Russian supplies natural gas to whole Europe. Recently it began to sell crude oil to China and India. Now Russia has a hawk eye on Agricultural soil to produce more and more grains to export. Russia is now concentrating itself to produce more children. Population of Russia is shrinking day by day. Russia has launched some family scheme to produce more children. To keep a good man power is essential for any nation.  Russia tackled huge loss in Ukraine war, but by now it succeeds its agenda. Russia invaded not only fear from NATO, but also to capture agricultural land of Ukraine. Russia is creating two major perspective for Ukraine and Western Nations. First is push long period of war. It helps Russia to organize its army. Russia did not fight this war like a super power or it fought in the past time. Time will organize Russia well for future point of view. Russia is waiting tiredness of Ukraine Troops. Second is domestic issue for Russia. By now, Russians gave their support to Russian President Vladimir Putin. If war goes long, Putin will get such support in future and make a balance sheet for Ukraine War’s Costing.

It would be very interesting how long period Western Nations could supply essentials and war tool kits to Ukraine. Western Nations have no intentions to fight on the ground for Ukraine against Russia. European Nations face problem for gas supply in its countries. Russia cut its supply to those nations who supported Ukraine. European Nations which need gas for its people, how long they offence themselves against Russia. Russia started mobilization of its citizens in victorious part of Ukraine. It indicates that Russia has very big plan for Ukraine. If Ukraine wins this, People of Russia who mobilized into Ukraine Soil would cost more. By now Russia proved well itself in every war against Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler. They both underestimated Russian Army and lost war in the hands of Russia. Now it is challenging for Russia how it performs against US & Great Britain. Offence of Ukraine is totally depend on the help of US and Great Britain. Position of US and Great Britain is looking good due to their leadership challenge. US don’t have dare to challenge a war against any country and Great Britain is not in good position after BREXIT and frequent change in Leadership.

 

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Taliban means “STUDENTS” in Arabic. All Talibans are students with sophisticated weapons who conquered Afghanistan twice in 1996 and 2021. Mohammad Mulla Omar was founder of Taliban who captured Afghanistan in 1996. Taliban was established in 1994 by Mohammad Mulla Omar and his son Abdul Ghani Baradar. Taliban refers itself as Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA).  Ideology of Taliban is totally dependent on Sharia Islamic Law based on Deobandi fundamentalism and social and cultural norms of Pashtun (Pashtunwali). Most of Talibans are Tribesmen of Pashtun. Taliban is always supported by Pakistan. When Mulla Omar snatched Afghanistan, ¾ size of Afghanistan was captured, now it is more than 95% size of Afghanistan controlled by Taliban in 2021. This time is no bloodbath between Afghanistan Forces and Taliban Militants. It is complete surrender by Afghanistan Government with 350000 Army Personnel trained by World Best Army United States along with sophisticated weapons. It is very disturbing elements.

Taliban now captured Afghanistan, but Government is not announced by now. It creates frown among Taliban, Haqqani Network Group and Pakistan Intelligence ISI. A general opinion is made public to administer Afghanistan. Taliban was supported not only by Locals, but also by Pakistan Army along with political support from China and Russia. China made a deal with Taliban before taking over Afghanistan for mining on soil of Afghanistan. China wants mining in Afghanistan so China supported Taliban. India have done great infrastructure work in Afghanistan, but got nothing in Mining. India invested too much and made roads. China have also plan to connect Afghanistan with One Belt one Road initiative. Taliban made itself greedy for power in Afghanistan, Entry of China is going something different at this time because China is in Afghanistan only business. Business would happen when Peace could take place. Peace is almost impossible in Afghanistan. There are many countries in World which took money from China and gave authority to China to work, now these nations want china out from their countries. Pakistan itself got struck badly in the hands of China to make built CPEC (CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR). Now China will make road in Afghanistan for its business. Pakistan though if road would be built, economic growth rises, but China used only its CPEC for transport, not for economic growth of Pakistan. It will happen same in Afghanistan.  Without Technology and education, no nation can grow its economy. Economy of Pakistan and Afghanistan run only with aid of developed nations and World Bank. Now Pakistan and its terrorist outfits will try to destabilize Kashmir with the help of Taliban. But they must think that first Taliban must be free from internal challenge, then look scope in international issues. Untrained militant of Taliban cannot resist an Army of any country.

Now there are two forces working in Afghanistan. First force is China – Pakistan and second one is Russia – India – Iran. They all are looking their own business profits. India is not interested to provide money to Talibani Government, ensured all kind of help for re-building Afghanistan. Russia has also very bad experience in Afghanistan. Afghanistan defeated Russia after ten years long war from 1979 to 1989. India has done a great job since last twenty years for re-building after United States destroyed Afghanistan to search Al – Qaida Terrorist Osama Bin Laden. If China – Pakistan broke into Talibani Government in Afghanistan, India will lose most because it invested time and money both in Afghanistan. United States have no interest in Afghanistan because billion dollars was spent, but output is nothing. United States is now focussing South China Sea row with Japan – Australia – India against China. At this time, World order is set to change. If at this time, China would be resisted, it will be biggest danger for United States’s dominance in the World. United States – Japan – Australia – India have made a group of these Nations, that is called QUAD (Quadrilateral Security Dialogue).

All eyes are set on New Talibani Government. It would be decided by Afghanistan who will stay in Afghanistan. There is direct relation of Afghanistan with China – Pakistan. But at present, there are two forces in Afghanistan. One is Taliban which captured power with the help of China – Pakistan. Second is Haqqani network which is controlled Internal Afghanistan. Both groups became rivalry in Afghanistan. It is said that gun battle took place between these two forces by which Mullah Baradar has been wounded. Stability of Afghanistan is dependent on agreement of Taliban and Haqaani. Both groups are notorious and illiterate. If they cannot reach an agreement in Afghanistan, China will take full advantage on such circumstances.

Evacuation of United States’s forces is set when United States – Taliban met in February 2020 for Peace deal. It was first direct talks between United States and Taliban. Taliban agreed on many things which is not fulfilling right now. Transfer of Power was started from February 2020. US President Joe Biden announced in April 2021 that United States would return from Afghanistan before 11th September 2021. Such announcements increased confidence of Pakistan which gave always safe haven to Taliban and Al – Quaeda outfits. Osama Bin Laden was also given shelter at Abbottabad near Islamabad in Pakistan. Pakistan took innumerable aids from United States, but did nothing for US since 2001 World Trade Centre attack. Pakistan not only gave large shelter to Talibani amd Al – Aquaeda Terrorist, but also made deal with United States arch rival China. Pakistan played double game with United States and China. Now China is looking economic benefits from Afghanistan’s present situation. Role of Pakistan with United States is very suspicious. That is why, United States is taking measuring steps for Pakistan. Donald Trump and Joe Biden both decreased aid amount for Pakistan. Everybody knows that Pakistan Military and its Spy Agency ISI are behind power back of Taliban in Afghanistan. China increases morale of Pakistan to do so that United States could evacuate Afghanistan. China is tutoring diplomacy lesson to Taliban’s leaders. Statements of Talibani leaders are more mature than before any time.

Now communist nations urged that it is needful to help new government in Afghanistan. It must be asked them why it needed to root out a government in Afghanistan. There was nothing needed to change guard in Afghanistan. It was an international conspiracy to take control on natural mines in Afghanistan. Taliban was available when Abdul Ghani was President. But Taliban was not enough strong to Afghanistan army. Taliban was made strong through increasing their morale by China and Pakistan to provide weapons and importance in Afghanistan when United States decided to leave Afghanistan. Now Talibani Government demands money to run the country. These talibani leaders have huge difference how to run the country. Taliban was self dependant in 1996 under leadership of Mullah Omar, but at this time, it is puppet of China and Pakistan. Pakistan wants to Taliban to enter in Kashmir and China wants mining in Afghanistan. Iran and Russia are also working on their interest in Afghanistan, but China would take economic benefits through mining. India is very puzzled situation in Afghanistan because India worked hard on infrastructure in Afghanistan to take mining rights, but it has been given to China after collapsing Afghanistan Government. Now India has no reliable companion in Afghanistan. United States don’t have interest.

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Israel and Palestine once again engaged themselves in fighting mode. Israel is well made technological nation. Palestine is almost a terrorist country where youngsters and old age people are making bombs and rockets. Palestine must understand that only aggression is not an option to destroy its enemy. Palestine must inject money in their educational system and make itself as advance as Israel. Israel is only one Jewish Nations in the world. It is a hard working nation where service for army is compulsory for its all citizens. Israel spend too much money on its educational system, research & development, and sophisticated weapons made of itself. Israel is now selling its technology to rest of the world. It is almost impossible to match Israel and Palestine altogether. Although Israel is surrounded by Islamic Nations like Egypt, Jordan, Palestine, Amman. But these Islamic nations did nothing to harm Israel. Once in 1967 they tried collectively to defeat Israel, Israel destroyed badly them due to its technology advancement. All these nations are very small countries in Middle East of Asia. Israel has been capturing its land from Islamic Nations since 1920. Israel has only almost 10 million population, these Islamic nations tremble from Israel.

This conflict is most problematic situation for both nations. It has been more than 53 years to occupy West Bank and Gaza Strip for Israel, but no solution has come. Tensions started when First Zionist Congress in 1897 and Balfour Declaration 1917 was made public declarations that there was a Jewish Homeland in Palestine. Jewish who were around the world were started to immigrate in Palestine. Jewish started to fight against Palestine for regaining their homeland. Jewish trained all members of their family to fight against Muslim Dominated Palestine. Slowly and slowly Jewish Community began to outsmart Palestine and captured its area. In this homeland fight between Israel and Palestine, British government extended its whole support to Jewish. British supported Jewish because Jerusalem was situated in Palestine which is most sacred place for Christians. Although Jerusalem is a shrine for Christians, Jewish, and Muslims. For Christians, Jerusalem is the place where Jesus preached and resurrected. For Jewish, it is the only place where Jewish Temple was built. Now there is only Western Wall where Jewish prayed. For Muslims, it is the place from where Prophet Muhammad ascended to heaven on where Al-Aqsa Mosque is situated. Christians and Jewish came altogether to fight against Muslims who captured it. Study shows that it is homeland of Jewish so a nation was mandatory for Jewish. It was made as Israel, a nation for Jewish. Wherever Muslims occupied, they destroyed that place. All sites were converted into Islamic Culture.

Haj Amin Al-Husseinin, Leader of Palestinian Arab Nationalists called Jewish a dangerous marked when Jewish were returning to Palestine. Due to extreme supress of Jewish, a huge violence against Jewish in 1920-21 in Jerusalem and Jaffa. Thousands of Jewish were killed. In 1929, once again Arab Leaders provoked riots against Jewish in Gaza, Safed, and Hebron and Jewish were evacuated from Hebron and Gaza. Such violence was very dangerous for Jewish so Jewish set up the Jewish Paramilitary Force Haganah. Jewish got support from Western Christian Nations like Great Britain and US. Both nations gave full support to Jewish to establish Israrel. Sheikh Izadin Al-Qassam from Syria who prepared for Arab Revolt 1936, was killed by British in 1935. It started huge violence against the British and the Jews. In the first response, Arab Nationalists were too heavy on the British and the Jews by 1936, but after that the British supressed almost all Islamic groups in 1937. Result was that Peel Commission was formed and this commission suggested partition of Palestine. Partition of Palestine was not liked by Palestine Leaders. Jewish Leaders liked this proposal, but some of them were unhappy because they wanted to convert whole Palestine into Israel. Violence erupted most of the area in Palestine by Second World War, but Jewish started to be heavy weight on Palestine Groups. US and Britain helped all a lot with sophisticated weapons to Jewish.

After Second World War, United Nations was formed to resolve such issue. In 1947, United Nations gave Resolution and recommended partition Palestine into an Arab State and a Jewish Israel. Violence once again took place, but at that time, Jewish taught a good lesson for Arab Islamic Groups. By 1948, Arab Forces were defeated badly by Jewish. Gulf Nations supported Palestine Arabs and triggered violence in Middle East against Jewish. But It was all in vein. Result was Jewish became more powerful than Palestine Arabs. US and British helped Jewish because they wanted to free Jerusalem from Muslims. That is why, they supported with full dignity to Jewish. Jewish with the help of Western Christion Nations established itself a nation for Jewish. Jewish got its original land to form A Nation Israel.

On 14th May 1948, Arab League decided to intervene in the favour of Palestine Arab after establishment of Israel. Britain was once again stand with Israel. Both forces march towards each other.  Arab- Israel War was broken out. There was fierce fight between Arab League Nations and British-Israel Forces. Cease-fire took place with an agreement in 1949. Igypt and Jordan were fighting in the support of Palestines. Both Nations supported Suicide Bomber against Israel. In 1959, Egypt separated itself with All Palestine Government. United Arab Republic took control on war between Israel and Palestine. Yasser Arafat, A Militant of Palestine, established Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). He succeeded to take support of Arab Nations. A war once again thwarted both Nations in 1967. Palestine with the support of Egypt and Jordan attacked fiercely on Israel. PLO Chief Yasser Arafat was gaining too much support from Arab Nations. Israel gained most part of West Bank from Jordan and Gaza Strip from Egypt. PLO was unable to do anything against Israel despite support of Arab Nations. This was Six days war which destroyed too much to PLO, Egypt and Jordan. PLO made its headquarter in Jordan. But after defeating in the war, PLO and Jordan took on each other in 1970. Jordan defeated PLO and ruined its headquarter. This war is called the Battle of Karameh. PLO made once again its Headquarter in South Lebanon. PLO took over a big area there. It was called “FATAHLAND”. PLO began fresh attacks on Israel continuously and airplane hijacking across the world. PLO was fighting Lebanon authority too. In 1982, Israel took side of Lebanon and started war against PLO after assassination of an Israel Diplomat. In few weeks, Israel and Lebanon destroyed PLO’s Headquarter in Lebanon. PLO Chief Yasser Arafat shifted PLO’s Headquarter to Tunisia. In 1993, Israel-Palestine Peace process accorded in Oslo to allow PLO for setting up its headquarter on the soil of Palestine. During this peace process, Israeli Prime Minister Rabin was assassinated by an Israeli person. People of Israel did not want peace process with Palestine. Newly Elected Government of Israel came to power in 1996 and did not apply peace process. During happening such events, Palestine established its army as ‘PALESTINIAN NATIONAL AUTHORITY’.

After unsuccessful attempt of peace, both nations erupted each other in 2004. 130 casualties took place and finally Israeli Prime Minister Sheron removed Israeli army from Gaza Patti. In 2006, Militant Organization HAMAS came to power in Palestine in the election. Israel sanctioned on Palestine by which Hamas accepted Israel-Palestine Agreement done by previous government. After that Hamas and Opposition of Palestine Fatah engaged in political rivalry. Hamas defeated Fatah and took full control on GAZA Strip. Israel imposed naval blockade on Palestine Government. Tension between Israel and Palestine rose in 2009. Israel attacked heavily on Palestine and killed thousands of people due to violence activities against Israel. In 2011, Palestine tried to take membership of United Naions. But it was failed because Hamas controlled Gaza, but other parts were uncontrolled. Although United Nations upgraded Palestine as a non-member State’s observation. PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) was changed into “STATE OF PALESTINE”. In May 2021, Israel and Palestine once again were face to face because Al-Aqsa Mosque was raided by Israel Security Forces in East Jerusalem. That is why, Palestine became red hot and started to launch rockets on Israel from Gaza Strip. Although Iron Dome was constructed by Israel for its security. But Israel found an opportunity to punish them who were launching on Israel. Israel began to attack on Palestine with external and internal background. At least 200 Palestine’s people were killed and more than 100 building in Gaza Strip were destroyed heavily. Finally US interfered and peace took place for both nations.

Conclusion is that Israel is a research & development nation and Palestine is a terrorist nation. Israel captured most of its ancient homeland and Palestine is shrinking day by day. It is hard to believe where Islam exists, most of the nations are arrested by violence and civil war. It can be seen in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Palestine, etc. People from this religion must think why they are being treated like this. Religion bigotry is too high in this religion. Such people must invest its intellectuality on science and technology.

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Donald Trump was defeated by Joe Biden. It was totally impossible after doing a great job for US. But I was done by Intelligent People of US. They ousted an Industrialist and made US President a mature personality who had more than 40 years’ experience in White House. There was great drama after election. Both Leaders were claiming victory. Donald Trump wanted not to count mailed votes but his counterpart was chanting slogan “Every Vote must be counted.” Finally as Court directed that every vote must be counted. Donald Trump was defeated very narrowly with vote margin. It was almost impossible for Joe Biden to defeat to Donald Trump. Although Donald Trump was not a politician, but he raised right issues for US. Donald Trump was defeated by his own Non-Politician’s Character. Covid 19 also played an important role to oust Donald Trump from Presidency. He never took seriously it. He mocked Covid 19, but Positive cases were surging badly. It was an adverse behave that cases increase, care taker of US mocked it.

There was a long debate how US Policies changed on key issues in National and International Arena. There were some works done by Donald Trump could not be changed, but a lot of changing would be in process. There are innumerable challenge for Joe Biden and his deputy Kamala Harris to settle down from Non-Politician to Politician. It is impossible to overturn all decisions of Donald Trump, but a lot of changing are on card. It is murmuring in International Politics that Joe Biden is an American Communist. If it would be right, it is bad news for India. Kamala Harris also raised many times Human Rights issue in Jammu & Kashmir after abrogation of Article 370 and Article 35A. World are looking a change after the defeat of Donald Trump. There are a huge list of new dawn how Newly Elected President of US would handle the World Order. It would be very challenging how to save US Dominance and maintain a status quo on other issues.

First challenge is for Joe Biden how to tackle Pandemic Covid 19. Donald Trump paid huge price after underestimating Covid 19. He openly mocked it many times at Public Event. Now US is most affecting Nation in the World. There is large amount testing being done. That is why, such cases are registering. US has 370 Millions Population in which more than 30 Millions are Covid 19 Positive. Testing is also going on. US will test all its population. In India, Indian Premier Narendra Modi also pressed on increasing Testing for Covid 19. US is hiring more than 100000 people for contact tracing of positive cases. He has desire to establish at least 10 testing centre in every state. US has launched many direct benefit schemes for US Citizens like cheaper loans, fund transfer, etc so that pandemic effect could have been minimized. Biden Administration increased expenditure on Minimum wage and invest in green energy. Joe Biden gave forgiveness to students for $10,000 loan and raised minimum wage to $15 per hour. Joe Biden inspired Americans to use and purchase American goods and services. He pledged a $400bn to use dollars to buy American goods and services. Although Joe Biden was criticised to back NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), but now he is pleased to invest $300bn in US-made materials, services, research and technology. Joe Biden Administration allotted $30bn investment fund for minorities by which they could overcome economic and social programmes. Before the election in US last year, racism existed too much and it was a political agenda in the election. Mr. Biden supported Paris Climate Accord. Donald Trump rejected it. Now US is ready to cut 28% greenhouse gases by 2025. He proposed $1.7tn investment in green technologies research.

Joe Biden is facing a great challenge in Middle East of Asia. Barak Obama always supported Arab Spring Movements in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya. All these have changed their government for long. Husni Mubarak and Gaddafi were finished. Barak Obama diplomatically did it. He maintained a good relation with other Gulf nations. He cracked a deal with Iran for Nuclear Power. When Donald Trump came into power in last month of 2016, he did opposite. He had lack of diplomacy. He called MUSLIM and banned citizens of gulf nations to tour to US. Now once again, Joe Biden has pressure to change the situation in Gulf Nations. Joe Biden was Vice – President of US, When Obama was serving as President of US. Expectation would be very high from Joe Biden for Gulf Nations. To maintain peace and harmony, Biden Administration must de-legalise IRAN Deal with Barak Obama. Donald Trump was a non-diplomatic person who does not know power of Diplomacy. Conflict between Israel and Palestine is well known by everyone. Obama Administration never supported step of Israel from 2008 to 2016 and did not approve JERUSALEM as capital of Israel, but Donald Trump authorised it when government was changed in US. Obama Administration always used soft and kind diplomatic language for its friends and Enemies. But it made silly mistakes too. Language was good of Obama Administration, but working was not properly good. On the other hand, Language was veiled, but working was very good as per situation. Trump Administration did many notable work, but language was very erratic. Donald Trump also used such prohibited language many times. Obama Administration created problematic behaviour in Syria, Iraq, Bahrain, and Yemen. Barak Obama supported Sunni Rebels against the Iranian backed Assad in Syria, was friendly Shia led government in Iraq. Donald Trump generalized such issues. Biden Administration would be in challenging time how they would coordinate with these nations.

Joe Biden is trying hard to reduce US Army from War Struck Nations. He announced that by 11th September 2021, Afghanistan will be leaved by US Army. Now Tension will grow of India because Pakistani Spy Agency ISI will distract Taliban and attack on whom are working on Indian gifted projects to Afghanistan. There are mostly Indians who work on the behalf of Government of India. Border of India and Pakistan once again would be a hottest point. This US Government will favour a deal between Israel and Palestine so that US could have kept good relation among Gulf Nations. Joe Biden will never take side of Israel like Donald Trump. Joe Biden is democratic Leader in US, but he is personally a Communist. He is dangerous for India, Japan, Taiwan, Israel, and Australia. He will never take on China for long time in South China Sea. Joe Biden is ready to re-authorize deals which were done by Barak Obama with other Nations. As Joe Biden re-structures Atomic deal with Iran. This Atomic Deal was destroyed by Donald Trump saying it is only befitting to Iran. Donald denied Paris Treaty for Climate Change in which Carbon emission was reduced by 28% upto 2024. Joe Biden would not destroy Paris Treaty. Although this step will reduce the pressure on Developing Nations. Due to the aggressive policy of Donald Trump, People from various Nations are taking Citizenship of Canada. It means that this step will be nullify by Joe Biden. It is very challenging work. To live in US is dream of people which was made harder.

Covid 19 created great hurdle for world community. As it is seemed that US is international cop which will cooperate other nations especially developing and Under-Developed Nations. US is only saving itself from this pandemic. On the other hand. US blocked export of raw material of making Covid 19 Covishield Vaccine from Serum Institute of India (ASTRAZENECA, OXFORD UNIVERSITY). US has a soft behaviour to China for spreading Covid 19. When Donald Trump was President of US, he openly criticised China over Covid 19 spread. He blocked WHO (World Health Organization) to give money to WHO due to negligence of Covid 19. But Newly Elected Government did nothing against China why it hid from the World and did not ban its citizens to travel other nations when Covid 19 reached many European and American Nations. US did not ask a single question to WHO why it is unable to find out how it spread across the World.

This time is very crucial for World. Time has come collectively to fight back for Pandemic Covid 19. If US adopt such selfish behaviour, his Super Power image will dent heavily. China is ready to go down US at every sector. From Arab to Japan, From Russia to Israel, From Argentina to Brazil, From Cuba to Palestine, everywhere people and Nations needs to cooperate one another. Only Cooperation can save us from this miserable situation of Earth. Communist minded Joe Biden must think that he is representing Americans along with his companion nations. He must not represent Communist Ideology in US like Capitalist Nation. US is torch bearer of Capitalism in the World.

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Government of India passed New Education Policy 2020 to take India from traditional education to technical education. It is a revolutionary step to improve the situation of educational system of India. Since Independence, no major reforms took place. As per new requirements from educational demands, India set itself to fill the gap of education. India produces lakhs of graduates every year, but they are unable to get jobs as per their educational qualification. To find jobs and start new business, India needed a new educational policy by which their education would be employed full, not a collection for degree. Indians are more interested to collect degree, not quality of education. Indians study only for degree. After getting degrees from University, they apply for government jobs. Government jobs are very limited and every graduate cannot get government job amid tough competition. Majority of students cannot be able to find jobs as per their degree. But unemployed students are counted in the country for Unemployment rate. These students have degree so they cannot engage themselves in other jobs. Such students expire their young age for preparation to government jobs. If young age crosses, it is almost impossible to come out such trauma that given valuable time from their life to themselves, but found nothing.

As per size of population of India, it is totally unfair to provide Government jobs to everybody. But Government of India must consider how to provide a medium for their livelihood. Now days, Agriculture Sector is shrinking and Service Sector is growing too much to employ people. To find a job in Service, people need to take technical education so that they could find jobs. Manufacturing Sector is required bulk amount of capital to start business. Attraction of people is growing with Service Sector but need job oriented education. People are working in service but they are not skilled. One in five employees is skilled. If skilled people would increase, quality of product and their working must improve. Government of India need to make from Unskilled to Skilled. It has been a basic requirement to provide job oriented education to new generation of India. Such education must be started at early education of children. Education of India was encrypted during British India as Education of English was too much essential. Policy of LPG (Liberalism, Privatization & Globalization) was implemented in 1992, but Job Oriented Educational Policy could not be changed.

The National Education Policy 2020 was approved by Government of India. This New Policy replaces National Education Policy 1986. The New Policy 2020 is framework from Primary Education to Higher Education as well as vocational training in both rural and urban India. The aim of NEP2020 will transform Education System of India by 2021. The Language Policy would be totally dependable on State. The draft of NEP2020 was prepared by a panel led by ISRO Chief K Kasturirangan. Vision of the NEP2020 is to transform our whole educational system into high quality education to all. Language Policy is up to the states, institutions and schools to decide the implementation. Education Policy 1986 and Right to Education 2009 both have promoted usage of the mother tongue too as an advisory guideline.

The NEP 2020 makes numerous changes in India’s education policy. It aims to increase state expenditure on education from almost 4% to 6% of the GDP. Mother tongue and Regional language would be given more importance in NEP 2020. There would be no language to be imposed on Students and States. It has been divided in two sections. First Section would be for School Education and Second one for Higher Education.

The 10 + 2 Education Model would be restructured with 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 model. First stage would be for Fundamental Stage. It will be divided into two parts. Pre – School Education would be for 3 years and Standard 1 & 2 in Primary School. Age of 3 to 8 years would be covered in this stage. It would be totally activity based learning. After that, Second Stage would be appeared in which Standard 3 to 5 will cover the ages from 8 to 11 years. This stage will cover subjects like Speaking, Writing, Physical Education, Language, Art, Science and Mathematics. Then third stage would come with Standard 6 to 8 from 11 to 14 years. It will give more clarity to subjects of Students. It will make students learnt conceptual knowledge of subjects like Mathematics, Sciences, Social Sciences, Art and Humanities. After that, Classes from standard 9 to 12 which are covering ages of 14 to 19 years would be bifurcated into parts. First part would be standard 9 and 10 standard and second part for standard 11 and 12. These four years to cover multiple subjects for students.

In NEP 2020, every year exam would not be held, exam would be conducted only three exams standard 2, 5 and 8. Although Board exams would be conducted same in standard 10 and 12 with new designing tools. “PARAKH” Exam would be conducted twice in a year in which exam would cover two parts namely Objective Exam and Descriptive Exam. Midday meal program would be extended with including Breakfast. Coding would be started from standard 6.

Higher Education has proposed a 4 year degree of Bachelor in an undergraduate programme with multiple exit options. If Student only completes a year of study, will get a certificate. If 2 years will be completed, a diploma will be awarded to student. If 3 years will have been completed, a bachelor degree will be there. At last, if 4 year has been completed successfully, student will get multidisciplinary bachelor’s degree. MPhil (Masters of Philosophy) courses to be ended. There would be a Higher Education Council of India (HECL) to regulate higher education. It would be 4 verticals.

  1. National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC) will look into the matter of teacher education.
  2. National Accreditation Council (NEC) will give quality of education.
  3. Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC) will be for funding and financing of universities and colleges. It will replace National Council for Teacher Education, All India Council for Technical Education and University Grants Commission.
  4. General Education Council (GEC) will contribute for graduate attributes and learning outcomes. It will also take responsibility for National Higher Education Qualification Framework (NHEQF). The National Council for Teacher Education will come under the GEC, as a professional standard setting body (PSSB).

Veterinary Council of India, Council of Architecture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research and National Council for Vocational Education and Training. The National Testing Agency will be given responsibility to conduct all kind of entrance exam for admission in universities. Foreign Universities can set up their campuses in India. The fees of both private and public universities will be fixed. The NEP 2020 has set new criteria for becoming a teacher. 4 years Bachelor Program will be minimum requirement. The National Council for Teacher Education will encrypt a National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education and a National Professional Standards for Teachers. Prime Minister of India will be the head of National Education System. There are many criticism about The NEP 2020. The Student’s Federation of India stated that it threatened the federal character of the education structure. It increased the chance of commercialization of education system of India. There would be no independent research. But it is very necessary to change the structure of Educational system of India.

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Both India and China got freedom in 1947 and 1949 respectively. But both nations have a lot of differences on border issue. China is a country which has border dispute with almost its all neighbouring nations. China has dispute in South China Sea with Japan, South Korea, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam and some South Asian Sea. India, Australia and United States also emerged themselves in South China Sea. Bhutan is also struggling with China in a border issue. Nepal is a new prey of China for Border Issue. Almost Every Nation which is bordered with China has border issue with China. Only Russia and North Korea resolved its border issue with China. Russia is more powerful than China so China did not create hurdle for resolution on border dispute. North Korea is living as blessing of China so North Korea has no issue with China. It depends on China how it handles North Korea. But other nations with bordering with China are suffering badly. Face off in Ladakh with India is a new string for China. India & China share its border on many places. India and China engaged firstly in Aksai Chin. It was controlled by China but claimed by India. This area was captured by China in 1962 war with India. After that, Arunachal Pradesh is biggest hot spot which is controlled by India and claimed by India. Tawang District is also situated in Arunachal Pradesh. Third number is Doklam which is a tri-junction among India, China, and Bhutan. Fourth Dispute Point is Shaksgam Valley which is controlled by China and claimed by India. That is called Trans-Karakoram Tract. This Area is gifted by Pakistan which is situated in POK (Pakistan Occupied Kashmir). Fifth spot is Territorial disputes in South China Sea.

The MacMohan Line between India and China was part of the 1914 Shimla Pact between British India and Tibet without Agreement with China. China have never accepted this treaty because it stated that Tibet was not independent. In 1962, Chinese Troops MacMohan Line and entered India. India lost to China and both nations established (LAC) Line of Actual Control. China forcefully captured thousands square Km land of India.

TSONG TSO is an area which is situated in Ladakh Region but it has been captured by China in 1962. It is no-men land. It is a route between India and China for Ancient Trade. Sikh Empire annexed Ladakh into Jammu & Kashmir in 1834. In 1841, Sikh Army invaded on Tibet but was defeated by Chinese Forces. At last, Sikh Army and Chinese Army signed a treaty in 1942 in which both army agreed not to interfere each other’s territory. But in 1946, British defeated Sikhs and captured Ladakh. Transfer of Sovereignty in Ladakh had been changed. At that time, British Officials and Chinese Officials met altogether and solved the issues of PONGONG LAKE & KARAKORAM PASS, But Aksai Chin remained a disputed area for both authorities. Area of Aksai Chin was captured by China during 1962 war.

During the time of British in India, British Civil Servant W. H. Johnson proposed “JOHNSON LINE” in 1865 between India and China by which Aksai Chin was made the part of Jammu & Kashmir. At that time, China was engaged with DUNGAN REVOLT, so it did not control XINJIANG. This “JOHNSON LINE” never introduced and presented to Chinese Authority. Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir accepted this proposal of W. H. Johnson. Almost 18000 Square Kilometres area was contained in Jammu & Kashmir. In 1897, British Officer Sir John Ardagh proposed a boundary line along the KUN LUN Mountains north of the YARKAND RIVER. At that time, Britain was more concern of expansion of Russia and China was too weak to retaliate its boundary. Actually It was a new concept of JOHNSON LINE. It was accepted by British Government of India.

In 1893, An Official of China Hung-Ta-Chen showed a map to A British Counsel General George Macarteny at Saint Petersburg in which border had broad details. In 1899, Britain proposed a revised boundary. It was showed that Lingzi Tang Plains would be part of India and Aksai Chin was the part of China. According to some sources, China accepted this boundary line, but never responded. British Government used both the JOHNSON-ARDAGAH and the MACARTENY-MACDONALD lines as per its comfort. Finally, British Government accepted fully MACDONALD LINE to be the boundary. A turning point came when XINHAI REVOLUTION collapsed the Central Power of China in 1911. In 1917, POSTAL ATLAS OF CHINA published that boundary in AKSAI CHIN as per JOHNSON LINE, which spread the KUNLUN MOUNTAINS. After that, PEKING (BIEJING) UNIVERSITY ATLAS published in 1925 in which AKSAI CHIN was kept in India. But by this time, British India did not establish any post in AKSAI CHIN and never controlled AKSAI CHIN. British India made one more mistake not to interfere in TIBBET ISSUE with China. Boundary Issue was unsolved by Independence of India in 1947.

AKSAI CHIN was the part of India in 1947. Government of India fixed its boundary and included AKSAI CHIN as per ARDAGH-JOHNSON LINE. But Chinese Government did not accept it because of increasing power of Communism. Expansions had come to Chinese Government. Pakistan and China both wanted to settle down its boundary dispute in Pakistan Administered GILGIT-BALTISTAN. Both Countries began negotiations on 13th October 1962. Both Nations agreed to solve boundary issue as per MACARTENY-MACDONALD line. Pakistan had to leave TRANS KARAKORAM TRACT 5800 Km2 area to China. Due to this pact, India was in danger because India wanted to resolve with the help of JOHNSON LINE, But Pakistan and China both created a great hurdle for India. After that China attacked on India to capture AKSAI CHIN between 20th October and 21st November 1962. China forcefully pushed India back from AKSAI CHIN. Pakistan did a fake deal with China because Whole Jammu & Kashmir was the part of India, not of Pakistan. Actually Pakistan gifted 5800 Km2 area to China to create pressure on India.

British India took Assam in 1826 after Anglo-Burmese Wars from 1824 to 1826. In 1914, British India, China and Tibet organized a summit in Shimla for Tibet status and border issue. British Negotiator was Henry MacMohan who persuaded both China and Tibet to give consent MacMohan Line between India and Tibet. After sometime, China disagreed with this pact and objected MacMohan Line. China did not sign on this border pact. Finally, India and Tibet sealed MacMohan Line. After independence, India patrolled as per MacMohan Line. According to China, Tibet Authority was local authority which had no right to seal an International pact. Such an approach of China created great hurdle for India and Tibet. China started to build roads, but India did not know that China was constructing 179 Km road in AKSAI CHIN. AKSAI CHIN was easily approachable for China. India had no idea that Road was being constructed by 1958. When China released new map of AKSAI CHIN, then India knew what was being done on the border. The THEN Prime Minister Nehru jee expressed that AKSAI CHIN was the part of Ladakh for centuries. After that China argued that MACARTENY-MACDONALD line gave AKSAI CHIN to China. India and China set up a committee to resolve border issue but no result came out. Finally China attacked on India 20th October 1962 and captured whole area of AKSAI CHIN.

After that Nathu La and Chola La clashes took place in 1967 between India and China at the border of Sikkim. According to independent sources, India got DECISIVE TACTICAL ADVANTAGE and defeated the Chinese forces in these clashes. Four Indian Soldiers were killed at TULANG LA in Arunachal Pradesh on 29th October 1975. During patrolling time, Almost 40 Chinese Soldiers attacked on them. Indira Gandhi Government registered a strong protest for killing Indian Troops, but did nothing. Conflict between India and China was continued during patrolling because LAC (LINE OF ACTUAL CONTROL) was not defined well. Both Troops had separate LAC, so such incidents took place. In 2017, India and China troops were face to face in DOKLAM near DOKA LA Pass. Chinese Army started road construction a disputed area by which Indian Army had to interrupt and get it shut the road construction. Although this area was related to BHUTAN, but due to Friendship Pact with Bhutan, India stood up with Bhutan against China. It was a tri-junction among India, Bhutan and China. At last, Chinese Army retreated and set up peace in war like situation. In june 2020, Indian Army and Chinese Army once again were face to face in GALWAN VALLEY. 20 Indian Soldiers were killed without fire a single bullet. It was claimed that Indian Army also killed more than 40 chinese troops without fire a single bullet, but China denied it. Indian State SIKKIM also had seen engagement between Indian and Chinese troops for bloodshed.

Relation between India and China is not well since 1947, but Indian Authority pretended,”HINDI CHINI BHAI BHAI.” But it never happened by now. At present, China is dumping its electronics items in India. China has developed some very suspicious mobile applications by which it can reign over social site in India. But India banned almost 267 Mobile Applications of China. Balance of Trade with China is worsening for India. China exported to India too much and imported too less. On the other hand, India imported too much from China and exported very less to China. China is earning too much money, but on the border, China is most dangerous enemy of India. At the many International Organizations like UNITED NATIONS, SCO, etc, China accompanied Pakistan against India. We need to understand double standard of China.

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Nepal was only a Hindu Nation in the World. But it is now a secular country where Marxists are ruling over Nepal with the help of China. Nepal was all weather friend of India. Due to effect of China, Nepal is making its distance from its eternal friend India. Kalapani Issue once again jumped at Global Diplomatic Market. India always supported Nepal whenever needed. China tried its best to sour Relation of India with its neighbours. Now Nepal is a soft prey of China to derail its diplomatic and cultural relation with India. Relation between India and Nepal was at the time of Lord Shiva and Rama. India and Nepal were natural partner for each other.

After independence of India, Nepal sought a strong relation and connection with India. At that time, Nepal was not a democratic country. There was King’s Government. Both Nations agreed with special friendship. Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship 1950 was designed and applied after signing by the Leader of Both Nations. According to Treaty, Nepalese Nationals were allowed equal economic and educational facilities like Indian Citizens in India. Nepal gave special preference to Indians in Nepal for business opportunities. Border of Both Nations were opened without Visa and Passport. Indian Nationals were not permitted to purchase land and properties and to work in Institutions of Nepalese Government, but Indian Government allowed Nepalese Citizens to work in Institutions in Indian Government except Central and State Civil Services. Rana Dynasty was ruling over Nepal and they feared to Communist Government of China. That is why, Nepal gave many facilities to India. The Nepalese Citizenship Act 1952 granted to Indians for Citizenship. Dominancy of India was grown up in Internal and External Policies of Nepal. Royal Family was Nepal worried a lot. In 1960, India and Nepal were divided on the issue of Israel and Palestine. India supported Palestine while Nepal gave their vote to Israel. After loss of Indo-China War in 1962, Nepal sighed and wanted willingly several concessions in Trade and Business. Both Nations cracked a deal by which India would give Trade and Concession to Nepal but took total right to sell weapons to Nepal. In 1969, Nepal looked daggers to India for existing security arrangement and told to leave security check posts. But it was against 1950 Treaty.

After that Tension between India and China came into limelight in 1975 when India annexed Sikkim. Nepal was against annexation of Sikkim in India. King of Nepal Birendra Bir Vikram Shah Dev proposed ZONE OF PEACE for Sikkim. Military Competition was let off. Nepal found support international support from China and Pakistan, but not from India. Sikkim Issue was continued by 1990 when Nepal was supported by France, United Kingdom, and United States.

Prime Minister of India Moraraji Desai agreed to separate trade and transit pact. It was long term demand of Nepalese Government. India gave a shelter to Opposition Parties of Nepal to use Indian Land for launching agitation against Nepalese Government and also refused to adopt Nepal as a ZONE OF PEACE. After that India and Nepal locked horn in 1988 when India asserted that Transit Treaty was affecting Trade Treaty. But Nepal was firmly determined that As per Unites Nations Charter, No Country could block the movement of People whose country was land-locked. It was very tough situation for both country. India wanted single treaty for trade and transit of people, but Nepal pressurized India to accept separate treaty for trade and transit of people. Finally Treaty of Janata Party Government was expired on 23rd March 1989. Result was that Blockade of Nepal started till April 1990. Nepal had taken an initiative to highlight this issue to World Diplomatic Arena. Nepal doubled its currency value against Indian Currency. Before it, Indian Currency was running without hurdle in Nepal. Indian banned Kolkata Port facilities to send Oil supplies from other nations. In this way, Growth Rate of GDP of Nepal plummeted from 9.7% in 1988 to 1.5% in 1989. It led huge economic loss of Nepal. Without Oil, Other Economic Sectors were kneeling down very fast. Nepal felt too much deficiencies of Energy Goods like Coal, fuel, medicine and spare parts. Nepal within 2 years found itself one of World Poorest Nations. India irked with Nepal for Work Permit to Indians who were living in Nepal and Nepal’s decision to acquire Chinese Weapons in 1988. At last, Nepalese Government bent down and King of Nepal constructed Pro-India Democratic Government in Nepal. Pro-India Political Parties started to rule over the Nepal and restored peace with India. India also removed all sanctions on Nepal. Royal Family of Nepal always created more hurdle for India. But Opposition of Nepal always supported India by 1990. Indian Prime Minister V P Singh and Nepalese pm Krishna Prasad Bhatarai met in Delhi and 13 months blockade was ended. After that, in 1991 Nepalese PM Girija Prasad Koirala visited India and signed Separate trade and transit treaties along with economic agreements for additional benefits to Nepal. In 1995, Nepalese Prime Minister Man Mohan Adhikary came to India to insist India for reviewing India on 1950 Peace and Frienship Treaty. He pressurized India to look into matter of demographic change in Nepal’s Terai region. Nepalese PM Mr. Adhikary wanted more economic independence from India for his land licked Nepal. Although Nepal was trying to improve its relation with China too.

King Gyanendra came in power after massacre in Royal Palace in 2005. Citizenship Bill 2006 was passed by Nepalese Parliament. About 400000 stateless immigrants got Nepalese Citizenship. India welcomed this step of Nepal. But a section of people did not sigh relief at that time because Relation between India and China was not in good shaping. This was time when Communism dominated in Nepal with Chinese Ideology. In 2008, Communist Leader Pushpa dahal Prachanda became Prime Minister of Nepal and went to China his first foreign trip. He broke tradition that newly elected Leader in NEPAL came to India as first state visit. India and Nepal both agreed to control water of River Kosi during Mansoon by which State of India Bihar faced flood every year. Reconstruction of Dam on River Kosi was planned when water level would go down. In 2010, India gave support to Nepal with US$50 Million and 80000 tonnes of foodgrains. Discussion on Water Resources was set three tier meeting with Ministerial, Secretary, and Technical Team. The then Foreign Minister of India Pranab Mukherjee played very important role for such positive environment. But continuously increasing impact of Communism in domestic politics of Nepal irked India. This Communism belonged to China. It was the main concern of India. Nepal started to strengthen its relation with China. August 2014, Newly Elected Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi visited Nepal to defuse Chinese Impact on Nepal and provide US$1 Billion credit to Nepal. But Chinese Influence grew fast when K P Sharma Oli elected Prime Minister of Nepal with Chinese Communist Ideology. In 2017, shooting took place on disputed territory between India and Nepal. It was tri-junction of India, China, and Nepal. That is called KALAPANI. Disputed Area is 400km2 from western Nepal and Susta 140km2 in South Nepal. Nepal claims that River to the West of Kalapani is the main Kali River so this area belongs to Nepal. While India says that river of west Kalapani is not main river and ridge of OM PARVAT to the east of the river, it is boundary between two nations. Border Dispute occurred in 1997 when Nepalese Parliament wanted a treaty on hydro-electric development of the river. At that time, both nations differed which stream of River KALI constitutes main source of river. Nepal believed 1856 map of British India but India controlled KALAPANI since 1962 after Indo-China war. In 2015, Nepal objected India to trade through LIPULEKH PASS in disputed KALAPANI AREA. Nepal told India not to engage disputed territory and to withdraw its army from that area.

At present, India is largest trade partner. During 2017-18, Exports of Nepal to India were about US$446.5 Million and Imports from India were about US$7.7 Billion. Main Imports of Nepal from India are petroleum products with 28.6%, motor vehicles and spare parts with 7.8%, M S Billet with 7%, medicines with 3.7%, other machinery and spares with 3.4%, etc. Export of Nepal to India are mainly jute goods with 9.2%, zinc sheet with 8.9%, textiles with 8.6%, threads with 7.7%, polyester yarn with 6%, etc. If relation between India and Nepal would be strain, there are a lot of negative impacts on Nepal. Blockade during 1989-90 was very horrible for Nepal. Nepal has struck itself with China. While policy of China towards poor nation like Nepal to provide economical assist. When it rises high, earns for China, not for Nepal. China struck many poor nations with such trickster policy. So Nepal must have caution about such nature of China.

 

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Citizenship is an inflammable issue for every Nation. When & How Citizenship would have to be provided, it is all dependable on Government of that particular Country. All Nations have clear process how to get and lose Citizenship. At this time, Indian Sub-Continent are burning on such issues. As World knows that India was spread with large Geological property. From India, Afghanistan was cut 1837, then Pakistan in 1947, and after that Bangladesh was born due to Civil War between West Pakistan and East Pakistan in 1971. It means that Indian Sub-Continent was divided into four Nations India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Afghanistan was made by East India, but Pakistan was constructed for Muslims whose leaders demanded a separate Nation from India. It was accepted by both Congress and Muslim League in 1947. British India was burning with Communal Violence. Muslim League also demanded as Representative of Muslims. Congress accepted it. Hindus from Pakistan started to come India and Muslims from India began their journey to Pakistan. Due to Communal Violence, Filled trains with Corpses of Hindus came to India and same from India went to Pakistan. Almost 85% Hindus came to India from Pakistan and same as from India to Pakistan. But Congress Party announced that whose Muslims wanted to go to Pakistan, they could go. If they did not have desire to go to Pakistan, they could stay in India as Citizen of India. India would take care for them.

National Register of Citizens came into limelight in Assam where Illegal Migrants from East Pakistan (Now Bangladesh) had been a big issue as per 1951 Census Data. Due to Vote Bank Politics, it was not maintained. Although at that time, NRC was made in Assam. After that The Illegal Migrants Act, 1983 was passed in the Parliament to be separated a process for Illegal Migrants from Assam. But in 2005, Supreme Court of India nullified this act and directed Government of India to update a Register for Assam. Unfortunately Vote Bank Politics occurred once again. UPA Government did not interest to update National Register of Citizens in Assam. It was continued nearly a decade. Finally Supreme Court of India once again directed UPA Government to update NRC in Assam. At that time UPA Government did nothing to solve this 52 years old issue. When NDA Government came into power in 2014, Process of NRC took place as per guideline of Supreme Court of India. At last in 2019, National Register of Citizens in Assam was updated. Population of Assam were recorded 3.3 Crore in which 19 Lakh Illegal Migrants was out of list. In this list, Hindus and Muslims both were available to leave India. BJP Ruled State did not accept it because of Hindus.

Bangladesh is an Islamic Nation where Muslims can live there without discrimination, but Hindus are being tortured in the Islamic Nations. This was reason by which BJP Ruled State Assam was not ready to implement National Register of Citizens 2019. After that NDA Government announced that National Register of Citizens would be implemented across the Country along with National Population Register. National Population Register (NPR) would be updated on the basis of National Register of Citizens (NRC). Every State of India would update data of Illegal Migrants.

National Population Register a list of the people in which Citizens and Non-Citizens both are included. It is a total population in a certain area. National Population Register would verify Indian Citizens and Non-Indian Citizens in the India. Nobody is going to lose their citizenship in the India. People who are residing more than six months with their plan by which they can would live in the India for another six month, would be included in NPR List. It means that NPR would make two lists. One is for Indian Citizens and second one is for Non-Indian Citizens. According to the Citizenship Rules, 2003, Vajpayee Government issued an order to prepare National Population Register and make National Register of Indian Citizens (NRIC) (Now It is National Register of Citizens or NRC) on the basis of National Population Register (NPR). Local Authority could include Indian Citizens into National Register of Citizens without including Non-Indian Citizens. Such things are also clarified by Modi Government in 2014.

Although Manmohan Singh Government enlisted 119 Crore residents in the India in 2010 through National Population Register. After that, Modi Government took Biometric information through Aadhar Data where it was found that information of crore of the people were found mismatched. Now Modi Government planned to verify National Population Register through the place of birth of Parents, last place of residence and serial number of Official Documents. This NPR List would be prepared by a Software and an Application without taking any documents. It would be only a declaration form. Due to Pandemic Covid 19, it was halted by now. It was about to begin 1st April, 2020.  Modi Government gave relaxation to get Indian Citizenship to Migrants of Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian of Islamic Nations Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Bangladesh who entered in the India before 31st December, 2014.

The Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019 was passed on 11th December 2019. It amended the Citizenship Act, 1955. Muslims from these three Nations Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Bangladesh were kept out to get Indian Citizenship because these are Islamic Nation which can take care of its Muslims. Population of Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian in these three Islamic Nations is decreasing dramatically. Either Population of these religions infiltrated in India or they were converted into Islam. These Religions are facing huge Religious Persecution in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. This Amendment also gave relief who were living in India past six years. Before this Amendment, 12 Years was time period to dwell in India to get Indian Citizenship, but it is now 6 years. Some Commentators on National & International Issues argued with Government of India to induct Muslims in CAA Bill because Muslims are being tortured in Sri Lanka, Tibet, and Myanmar. But Government of India replied that India have given Citizenship relief to those religion which are facing extreme religious persecuted by Majority in those Islamic Countries. Actually after partition of India and Pakistan, A large group of population has been entering in India with Border of West Pakistan (Now Pakistan) and East Pakistan (Bangladesh). It was continued when East Pakistan became a separate Nation Bangladesh. Bangladeshi Muslims, Rohingya from Myanmar through Bangladesh, Minority from Bangladesh were continuously coming to India. These Refugees were made Indian Citizens for Votes. Now these Infiltrated Groups have spread across the India. Vote Bank Politics rocked India for these Infiltrators. But Now, Government of India amended in Citizenship Law and gave Citizenship to Religious Persecuted Minorities from Neighbouring Islamic Nations. Muslims are in Majority so Indian Government kept them out of List. Border Issues were pending with Bangladesh by which Infiltration was done a large scale. Previous Government of India were not interested and determined to solve Border issue. When Modi Government came to Power, they firstly solved border issue with Bangladesh so that Infiltration could be stopped permanently. Now Modi Government planned to send infiltrators back to their country.

NRC (National Register of Citizens), NPR (National Population Register), and CAA or CAB (Citizen Amendment Act or Bill) are intertwined one another to deport Illegal migrants from India. First of all, National Population Register (NPR) would be updated with two lists. First would be List of Indian Citizens and Second one for Non-Indian Citizens. After that Non-Indian Citizens would be told to National Register of Citizens (NRC) with original documents by which Infiltrators would be identified. After Identification them, these Infiltrators would be sent to Detention Centre from where they would be deported to their original Nations as per CAA 2019 or CAB 2019 (Citizen Amendment Act 2019 or Citizen Amendment Bill 2019). Procedures are very simple and clear how to deport infiltrators in their Country. But Opposition of India are creating great hurdles for its own Government to stay Illegal Migrants. After passing CAA 2019 in the Parliament, Opposition played dirty politics with some Muslim Groups to oppose violently CAA 2019. Across the Nation, Objectionable Literature and Lecture on CAA 2019 were spread by which SHAHEEN BAGH made history. Everybody knew that No Indian Muslims were at risk to lose their Citizenship in India and this Law was amended for only Infiltrators and Illegal Migrants, but Unfortunately Muslims were made soft prey of Dirty Politics.

There is nothing to deal with NRC, CAA, & NPR for Muslims. They are being victimized through hate speeches of Opposition Leaders. Some Marxist Educational Institutions like JNU & JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY and Some Muslim Majority University like AMU are politicizing such a delicate matter. Border Issue and Illegal Migrants issue must have been solved by now. It has been 73 years of power transfer to Indians from British Government, it is misfortune of India that Our Leaders badly failed to sort National Interest issues out. Governments were elected with majority. No other Nation like India was unable to solve the issue which were struggling since 1947. National Register of Citizens was to be prepared after 1947. National Population Register was needed to update after partition of India and Pakistan. Border was to be closed after a strict guideline for Entry in India. If Kashmir Issue, Ram Mandir Issue, and Border Issue would have been solved immediately after partition, India could look beyond such limits. Time for building India was wasted at large level with no output. Every Citizen of India must not provoke themselves without knowing facts.

 

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Islamic State Pakistan is on the verge of collapse on the basis of its Macro Economics. Pakistan makes all its effort to increase militancy against India. Almost whole generation of Pakistan has been arrested by Islamic Bigotry, but they are unable to see their horrible future. If Youngsters picks guns for Mullah Islam, how these youngsters can contribute their efforts for strengthening Economy of Pakistan. For economic growth, Per Capita Income is very important. If Per Capita Income goes down, Grass Domestic Product (GDP) will certainly hit new low. Economy of Pakistan was better than India by 1980. After that, ISI showed a new route to its people to terrorise in Jammu & Kashmir. It was happened when Afghanistan defeated Soviet Union with the help of US. Now the generation of Pakistan from 1980 is playing with the hand of Mulla Islam. If Pakistan involves itself such proxy war, so there is no stability in Pakistan. If Stability does not exist, No MNCs would establish their plant in Pakistan. If such happens, there is no employment. Nation will come in negative circle of Economic Growth. It is exactly happening in Pakistan. That is why, This Islamic Nation is begging loan continuously from Financial Action Task Force (FATF). But FATF keeps Pakistan among GREY LIST (NO LOAN WAS CREDITED SUCH NATION WHICH IS ENLISTED IN GREY LIST). Pakistan Government leaved no stone unturned to come out from GREY LIST, But All efforts were in vein. Pakistan is still in Grey List but June 2020.

Most of Pakistan Economy runs bank of River Sindhu because it is rich in Human and Natural Resources. Pakistan Economy is 42nd Largest Economy as per GDP and 24th as per Purchasing Power Index. According to Per Capita Income, it is 154th in the World. Population of Pakistan is 5th in World Ranking. Although Pakistan Government restricted its population very well. After partition in 1947, Pakistan was an agricultural country where middle class family lived. Pakistan’s GDP Growth Rate was 6.8% in 1960, 4.8% in 1970, 6.5% in 1980, and 4.6% in 1990. It was five decades growth rate of Pakistan. After World entered in 21st Century. Pakistan also entered but it could not get momentum for economic growth. Economy of Pakistan was identified as a highly unstable and vulnerable due to Internal and External Setbacks. Setbacks were Kargil War against India, 9/11 Terrorist attack on US, War in Afghanistan, Global Recession in 2002 and 2008, lack of decisive leadership, etc.

US Exchange Dollars rate was Rs. 58.17 in 2004, but it has become Rs. 163.05 against Dollar in 2019. GDP Growth Rate was 7.70% in 2004, it is now 3.29%. Industrial Growth Rate was 17.37% in 2004, it is totally adverse now with 1.40%. Mining Sector Growth Rate was 21.78% in 2004, but it is now 1.96%. Manufacturing Sector Growth Rate was 18.83% in 2004, it is also in negative with 0.27%. Large Scale Manufacturing Growth Rate was 18.83% in 2004, at present it is also in negative mode with 2.06%. Slaughtering Sector Growth was 3.94% in 2004, but it is now with 3.47%. Agriculture Sector is also bad outcome from 2004 to 2019. Agriculture Sector Growth Rate was 2.85% at that time, but it is now 0.85%. Rice Production was 4.8% increase in 2004, but it is now negative with 7.2%. Sugarcane Production was 53.4% in 2004, but it has become worst now with 67.2%. Cotton Production was 10.0% in 2004, but it is now with 9.9%. Only Service Sector Growth is positive from 6.43% to 6.52%. Per Capita Income was $746 at that time, it is $1497.30 in 2019. It increased twofold in 15 years. Inflation Rate was 4.7% in 2004, while it is in 2019 with negative mode 7.0%. Fiscal Deficit was 129.5 Billion Rupees in 2004, and it is 994.70 Billion Rupees. Fiscal Deficit with percentage of GDP was 2.4%, but it has increased in 2019 with 8.9%.Total External Debt was $35.4 Billion, and it is updated in 2019 with $111 Billion. Foreign Exchange Reserve was $12.39 Billion in 2004, but it is now only $18.08 Billion. It has raised almost $6 Billion in 16 years. Foreign Direct Investment was $949.40 Million in 2004, it increased only with $1563.70 Million by now. In 16 years, it increased only $600 Million. Export was $12.40 Billion with growth rate 13.8% in 2004, but in 2019 it has increased $24.22 Billion with growth rate 2.2%. Import was $13.60 Billion with growth rate 20.0%, it increased by 2019 $56.60 Billion with growth rate 16.2%. Trade Deficit was $1.20 Billion with GDP Percentage 1.2% in 2004, but in 2019 it is $28.22 Billion with GDP Percentage 11.9%.

According to WALL STREET JOURNAL in 2017, it revealed that at least 42% Population now can relate to Upper and Middle Class. These population has a motorcycle and washing machine in every home. It grows rapidly since last fifteen years. Personal Loan was given Rs. 13.7 Billion to the people of Pakistan. Tourism is a boosting sector for Pakistan because of its cultures and landscapes. In this decade, Pakistan attracted 90 Million Tourists. It is double from last decade.

Due to large population growth and lack of education, Young people are in compel to work as Labour. Religious Bigotry is also destroying the generation of Pakistan. Terrorist Outfits pick young people and give salary to their family for livelihood. Those youths work for Terrorist Groups against India. Although Pakistan Government has started a new initiative for new generation. They begin Prime Minister’s Youth Program to tackle Unemployment in Pakistan. This program includes six provision for youths. First is Prime Minister’s Youth Business Loan Scheme in which Young People can take loan from banks to start their own business. Second is Prime Minister’s Interest Free Loan Scheme in which Poor Youth can take Interest Free Loan for new education and work. Third is Prime Minister’s Youth Skill Development Scheme in which Training Centres for Skill Development have established for youth. Fourth is Prime Minister’s Program for Provision of Laptops to Talented Students in which Studious and meritorious students get Laptops from Pakistan Government. Fifth is Prime Minister’s Fee Reimbursement Scheme in which Youth can get Fee Waiver in Schools and Colleges. Sixth is Prime Minister’s Youth Training Scheme in which People take Industrial Training. These Schemes are excellent on Paper, but on ground level, Religious Bigotry is so strong on Education. Corruption in Pakistan also swallows these scheme’s benefits from needy people. Its money is being enjoyed by Government Officials and Leaders’s kins.

Agriculture Sector of Pakistan is doing a very good job. Wheat is most important crop. Pakistan produced 26674000 tonnes wheat in 2017. Pakistan exported 4.5 million tonnes rice. Generally Pakistan exports rice, cotton, fish, oranges and mangoes and imports vegetable oil, pulses, and consumer foods. Pakistan has world largest camel market in the world. Contribution of Agriculture Sector in GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is 53%. Mining is also an important sector for economy of Pakistan. Pakistan has 600000 km2 area for mining. But only 2.8% of GDP has come from this promising sector. Lack of technology and technical education, it is dumb by now. This sector needs investments. Industry also existed in terror hit Pakistan. Industry can do well where war and terror could not take place. If terror and war would be available, industry cannot be developed. Investors need security and peace for production. If Industry does good, Unemployment problem of Pakistan will be solved forever. New Generation of Pakistan would not be radical. This sector has 18.17% share in GDP. Cement, Fertiliser, Edible Oil, Sugar, Steel, Tabacco, Chemicals, and Machinery are some major industry in Pakistan. Pakistan Government now has started to privatize Public Sector Units. It needs peace and secure environment for good privatization.

Defence Industry of Pakistan is evergreen industry. It produces sophisticated weapons and arms. It includes AL KHALID 2, ADVANCE TRAINER AIRCRAFT, COMBAT AIRCRAFT, NAVY SHIPS AND SUBMARINES. Pakistan manufactures and sells its arms to about 40 countries and earns $20 million annually. Textiles Industry in Pakistan is traditional in Punjab State. It exports 70% goods made of Textiles. Service Sector of Pakistan is largest contribution in GDP. It includes Transport, Storage, Communications and insurance. Most of the private jobs comes out from Service Sector.

Pakistan is rich country where poor lives. This proverb is also suitable for India too. But it is suited to Pakistan too. Government of Pakistan and Army of Pakistan only create hurdles for India. But such hurdles have backfired to Citizens of Pakistan. Generation to Generation of Pakistan becomes soft prey religious bigotry. They become terrorists physically or mentally. Due to such atmosphere in Pakistan, growth derails there. That is why, Security and Peace do not exist in Pakistan. So No FDI (FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT) comes to Economy of Pakistan. Now China built CPEC (China – Pakistan Economic Corridor as part of ONE BELT ONE ROUTE INITIATIVE). Pakistan earns money from China but this money is wasting for Islamic Radicalization against India. China is influencing more in Internal Policy of Pakistan. It is very dangerous situation of Pakistan. Strategy of United States of America now has changed. Pakistan needs to change its coming generation so that Pakistan could escape from China and Religious Bigotry.

Pakistan was denied loan from various platforms. Citizens of Pakistan and its Government must re-consider its strategy for India. It has been 73 years on, every war against India, Pakistan was defeated in 1948, 1965, 1971, and 1999. Finally Pakistan was divided into Nations, but despite it, Pakistan is always trying to destabilize India and has stood itself on the Bankrupt and Economical collapse.

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European Union was constructed to counter United States of America and Soviet Union along with possible threat China and India. But now United Kingdom exits from European Union on 31st January 2020. At present United States of America, Russia, China and India are very dominating position in World Politics. It is very hard to any European Country to search itself in the mainstream of Politics. India and China are fastest growing economy and have human resource. To counter India and China, European Nations made an organization. That is called “European Union” in which there were 28 Nations. It is 27 Nations after Brexit. BREXIT MEANS, ”Great BRITAIN EXITS FROM EUROPEAN UNION.”

A Referendum was taken place in June 2016 in which 52% people voted to leave European Union while 48% people remained with European Union. After referendum, British Government announced to withdraw from European Union by March 2017. Process was started to withdraw from European Union. Withdrawal was very crucial because of Britain Parliament. Deadlock in UK Parliament delayed its withdrawal from European Union. Finally General Election was held by Conservative Party Leader and Prime Minister of UK Boris Johnson. After General Election, UK Parliament voted once again, then BREXIT Deal was done. At the midnight of 31st January 2020, Great Britain formerly evicted from European Union. Although it will take 9 to 10 months to snap from European Union, Process has been begun.

It was all started in 1951 when Inner Six (Belgium, France, Italy, Netherland, and West Germany)  signed a Treaty of Paris to establish the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). After that Treaty of Rome was set up the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) in 1957. In 1967, This Organization was known as the European Communities (EC). At that time, United Kingdom (UK) tried to join this Organization in 1963 and 1967 but The then President of France Charles De Gaulle vetoed both times not to entry United Kingdom in European Communities. Finally United Kingdom became member of European Communties in 1973 under the then British Prime Minister and Conservative Leader Edward Heath along with Denmark and Ireland.

But Politics over European Communities was still on in United Kingdom. In 1974, Conservative Party was defeated by Labour Party. First time in United Kingdom, A Referendum took place on which United Kingdom should stay with European Communities or not in 1975. In that referendum, Two Countries of United Kingdom Scotland and Northern Ireland voted to stay on in European Communities, but England wanted to leave European Communities with 67.2% Voting. Due to divide on that issue, Matter was called off by Labour Party. In 1983, Labour Party made that issue in the Election and announced if Labour Party came in Power, European Communities would be leaved without referendum. That trick backfired to Labour Party. After that Labour Party changed its strategy after Election in 1985. The then British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher signed the Single European Act without referendum. UK Government joined the European Exchange Rate Mechansim (ERM). Due to heavy oppose of ERM, The then Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher had to step down. Finally United Kingdom withdrew its support to ERM in September 1992. After that European Communities became European Union as per MAASTRICHT TREATY in November 1993. During that period, Eurosceptic Ideology was developed in United Kingdom. Eurosceptic means to oppose closer ties with European Union. Leaders like Margaret Thatcher and David Cameron wanted Europe as a single market, but denied closer ties with European Union. UK Independence Party (UKIP) started its journey in political arena of United Kingdom in 1993. It was a pure Eurosceptic Party. Its seat and vote share increased slowly and slowly. After 1993 at every Election in United Kingdom, This party took on well against with Labour Parry and Conservative Party. In 2014, UKIP defeated Conservative Party in By Poll.

It was rise of Modern Eurosceptic Ideology in United Kingdom. The then British Prime Minister David Cameron announced if he would be elected Prime Minister of United Kingdom so he would make a referendum on BREXIT in 2014. It was announced due to immense pressure of UKIP due to rising its vote. At last, David Cameron was elected Prime Minister of UK once again. He organized a referendum on BREXIT on 23rd June 2016 in which 51.89% votes came to exit from European Union while 48.11% voters wanted to remain in European Union. The then British Prime Minister David Cameron was a Eurosceptic Leader but did not want to leave European Union due to Economic Benefits. Finally he resigned and His Conservative Party made Theresa May UK Prime Minister to work out how to exit from European Union. Withdrawal from European Union was processed under Article 50 of European Union. Prime Ministership of Theresa may came to end due to no majority in House of Commons. Conservative Leader Boris Johnson became Prime Minister of United Kingdom, he failed to persuade Members of House of Commons. Finally he dissolved House of Commons and Election took place in 2019. Boris Johnson brought full majority. He started to sort out pending issues on BREXIT. BREXIT did very smoothly work but issue on Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland was tensed. It was called BACKSTOP in which Border between Northern Ireland and Republic Ireland would not be internal border. It would be External border because United Kingdom exited from European Union. Goods and Commodities are carried through that border easily, but after Brexit, it would be paid tariff.

According to Financial Times, Great Britain is set to break or scrap almost 759 International Agreements with Nations of European Union. Except it, 168 Agreements of Non – European Union Nations will also be broken. Economists believe that Great Britain would be in huge loss after Brexit. Per Capita Income of Great Britain will decrease for long time. If Per Capita Income reduces, GDP Growth will also hit negatively. During European Union time, Great Britain made a lot of agreements and treaties with European Nations and Non – European Nations. There was a collective force of European Union with Great Britain during dealing with other Nations. According to a study, Inflation of United Kingdom increased by 1.7% after referendum for Brexit in 2016. Financial Times showed that British Income reduced by 1.3% in December 2017. According to Economists, Great Britain had strong positive position for its Economy before leaving European Union. After Brexit, Great Britain will have to pay Tariff to export its goods to Nations of European Union and rest of the world.

India invests more in the United Kingdom than Nations of European Union as per norms of European Union. Now United Kingdom exits from European Union so its negative impacts would come on India. United Kingdom is third largest Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India. There are more than 800 Indian Companies which have large business in United Kingdom would suffer. It was considered that United Kingdom was a gate way for India to enter European Nation Countries. By now Indian Companies had border free access to rest of European Countries but now it is so hard to enter their market. As per a report of NASSCOM, Indian IT Industry set to take negative experience due to the BREXIT. It will lead due to depreciation of the Pound. After BREXIT, Spikes in the price of imported goods will surge, so Indian Companies will suffer a lot. There can be many positive effects on Indian Economy. Great Britain will seek New Free Trade Deal with India and rest of the world after Brexit. India will have in positive marks due to its strong fundamental economy and human resource. India is one the most Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Invertor for United Kingdom so British Government will deal with India to stay Indian Investors there. It is expected that Great Britain will offer India more tax free business and relaxed regulations.

After BREXIT, It would be politically and economically tough for Great Britain to find a way for its growth and development. European Union was very co-operative for Great Britain. Now Great Britain would emerge itself with World Economy and take on lonely with Tough competition with Developed Nations like US, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, etc. along with developing Countries like India, China, Brazil, South Africa, etc. Brexit will damage economy of Great Britain for short time and may create more hurdles for long economical goals.

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Economic Growth fluctuates as per scenario of India along with World. It is down now by about 5.5% on Grass Domestic Product. It went on by 8.2% in 2016. But there is one thing that never slumps due to any crises. That is Population Growth of India. Population of India never goes down into crises like Unemployment, Corruption, Surge on Crude Oil, Budget Deficit, loss in the election, Mansoon of India, Situation like war with Neighbouring Nations, Floods, Drought, Epidemic, etc. Such genuine issues never become reason for decreasing Population of India. Population Growth of India is evergreen positive trends. Efforts of Central Government and State Governments go in vein to improve life standard of Indians due to increasing Population. Indians think if members of family increase, it will dominate their family in that place. Indians believe this ideology that Children are gift of God, so carry on to be born infants and destroy the life of females. It seems that females only are born to be pregnant and give birth many children in their life. Indians must keep away from their wives, then see how many gifts were given by God. Indians have connected their population growth with their respective religions and communities. Once The then Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi tried to control Population and made forcefully vasectomy, but only for Hindus. India is only Nation in the world where taxes are taken from parents of two Children’s family and subsidies are distributed to parents of dozen children’s family. Tax Collection of Indians are being misused to provide subsidy to Un-controlled parents.

At present, India is second most populated country after China. It is about 1/5th of World Population. As per most 2011 census, Population of India was 1.2 Billion (120 Crore). It is estimated that Population of India will go up 1.35 Billion (135 Crore) by 2021 census. India has 65% population of youth by 35 years. Birth rate of India is 20.2 as per 1000 Population while Death rate is only 6.3 as per 1000 Population as estimated in 2017. Difference is 13.9 for increasing population of India with leap and frog. Sex Ratio of India is 944 females as per 1000 males as per 2011 census. Sex Ratio is increasing in 21st Century. India occupies 2.41% land area of the World, but it has more than 18% population of the World. India is second in Population but seventh in area in the World.

According to Colin Peter McEvedy, A British Scholar and Author on Demography of the World, Population of India including Pakistan and Bangladesh was 100000 persons in 10000 BC when Stone Age was called in Ancient History of India. After that Population of India was increasing 3.9% growth per 100 years. At 200 BC, It increased to 42500000 by Maurya Era (Time of Chanakya and his discipline Chandragupta Maurya). When India entered in AD from BC, Population of India was 60000000 people with Population Growth Rate 18.8% per century. At the time of Gupta Dynasty, it became rational. From 1 AD to 1200 AD, Population of India grew from 60000000 to 79800000 with Growth Rate 9% per 100 years. At 1191 AD, Muhammad Gori attacked on India and fought with Prithvi Raj Chauhan in First War of Tarain. Muhammad Gori was defeated badly by Rajput Army of Prithvi Raj Chauhan. Second War of Tarain took place in 1192 AD in which Prithvi Raj Chauhan lost the battle against Muhammad Gori due to dissension of Rajput Kings who did not fight with Prithvi Raj Chauhan. After that Population of India started to boom massively. Although at 712 AD, Muhammad – Bin – Quasim attacked and defeated to King DAHIR of SINDH, but Population of India did not boom. When Muhammad Gori became the Ruler of Delhi, Population of India increased fast. From 1192 AD to British East India Company, Muslim Invaders ruled over India. There were some famous dynasties like SLAVE DYNASTY, TUGHLAQ DYNASTY, KHILZI DYNASTY, LODI DYSNASTY by 1526 AD. After onwards, Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodi in First War of Panipat and established MUGHAL DYNASTY. This dynasty ruled over India untill British East India Company captured India. At 1400 AD, Population of India grew to 92900000 people. By the end 18th Century, Population of India increased dramatically from 92900000 people to 190400000 people. Islam Religion and Muslim Rulers changed the demography of India. From 1871 AD, British Government started Census at every ten years. Population of India was 238830958 People. As per 1941 Census, it increased to 388997955 People. After 54 years of Independence of India, it crossed 100 crores as per 2001 Census and became 1028737436. Now Population of India is set to overtake China to become World Most Populated Country.

According to Census 2011, Population of India is 1210854977 Persons in which Hindus are 966378868 person with 79.80%, Muslims are 172245158 persons with 14.23%, Christians are 27819588 persons with 2.30%, Sikhs are 20833116 persons, Buddhists are 8442972 persons with 0.70%, Jains are 4451753 persons with 0.37%, others are 7937734 persons with 0.66%, and Not Stated is 2867303 persons with 0.24%. Population of Others and Not Stated is about 12500000 persons. It is needful to find out who they are.

Percentage of Hindus Population is shrinking trend. As per Census 1951, Percentage of Hindus was 84.10%. Now it has been 79.80%, According to Census 2011. While Percentage of Muslim Population was 9.8%, now it is 14.23% as per Census 2011. Sikhs was at 1.79% and now they are at 1.72%. Christians have same percentage in Census 2011 with Census 1951. Others Buddhism and Jains have nominal change in percentage of Population. But Percentage of Muslims has increased from 9.8% as per Census 1951 to 14.23% as per Census 2011 and Not Stated Population becomes from 0.43% as per Census 1951 to 0.90% according to Census 2011. It is an alarming bell for other Religion especially Hindus except Muslims. Through such facts, it can be seen that Percentage Hindus Population is decreasing and Percentage of Muslims Population is increasing.

Now Population of India is fastest growing in the World. Intruders from Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Rakhine State in Myanmar (Rohingya), Sri Lanka, and Maldives are reaching India. There is major concern with Bangladeshi and Rohingya from Rakhine. As per Security Agency of India, Bangladeshi and Rohingya from Rakhine can be terrorist. They have linked with Bomb Blast in India. So Indian Government is very serious for these Intruders. Crores of Bangladeshi and Rohingya are roaming free in India without their identity. India has been a DHARMSHALA for everybody. As per order of Supreme Court of India, Assam Government made National Register for Citizens (NRC) in which at least 1900000 Intruders were caught living in Assam without their identity. NRC was processed on people who entered India after 1971. So such a large number of people came in the ambit of NRC. Especially Hindus and Muslims Intruders came to India from Bangladesh. Rohingya also accompanied them. Rohingya are from Rakhine in Myanmar where they were beaten and chased away. Firstly They come from Myanmar to Bangladesh by Boat, then they entered India. Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan are Islamic Nations so they can keep their Muslims Population well, but Non – Muslims (Hindu, Sikh, Christian, Parsi, Jain, and Buddh) from these Islamic Nations are tortured, so they come to India. Minorities Population in these Islamic Nations are decreasing dramatically. It is a global concern why such things are happening there in the name of Religion. That is why, Indian Government passed Citizen Amendment Act (CAA) 2019 to save intruded Non – Muslims who entered India by 31st December 2014. It is a clear message for Muslims from Islamic Nations Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan not to enter India and Intruded Muslims would be sent back their respective Nations. These Muslims can apply for Indian Citizenship according to legal process of Indian Government. It is applicable for every Nations in the World.

Indian Muslims are staging DHARNA for those Bangladeshi and Rohingya to scrap CAA so that all Intruded Muslims or Non – Muslims can get Indian Citizenship. They say that India is Secular Country and Citizen Amendment Act 2019 is unconstitutional. Protestors against CAA must understand that India is Secular Country for its citizens, not for foreigners. “SECULAR” Word in the Preamble of Indian Constitution was added in 42nd Amendment of Indian Constitution 1976. “SECULAR” Word was not present in the Constitution by 1976. Constitution Assembly did not include “SECULAR” Word in the preamble of Indian Constitution. 72 years on, National Register for Citizens (NRC) could not take call by now. NRC must have been done after 1947. Fortunately It is in the process to apply NRC across the Country, Unfortunately it is being opposed by its own Citizens to gift Indian Citizenship for Intruders. NRC has been applied by every country in the World. It logically correct that data of its citizens must be available with Government. Whenever whoever goes to Cinema, Hotel, Shrine, School, College, etc. with their Identification Documents, then Country must have such data of its citizens.

To give Citizenship to people of other countries is easy, but there is a matter of their livelihood. Population of India already is challenging mode. Now India needs to bring Population Control Bill in Parliament to restrict Population of India. Population Control Act has been applied in Islamic Nations like Iran, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc. There are at least 57 Islamic Nations in world. At present, Muslim Population in the World is 24.1%. When Muslims enter in a country, then slowly and slowly they bear children. That country becomes Islamic Nations. Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia etc. were not Islamic Nations, but due to Population explosion of Muslims, they now have become Islamic Nations. If Government of India does not restrict Muslim Population, India itself would be an Islamic Nation.

 

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Kashmiri Hindus were kicked out from their own houses and properties from Kashmir Valley. At least 500000 people were displaced forcefully after announcement from 1100 mosques in Kashmir Valley. Only reason was there that they are Hindus in Kashmir Valley. Whenever Muslims would be only 1 or 2 in numbers, they say “RAM RAM”. When they in 3 or 4, they would begin to say “ALLLAH ALLAH”. At last when their population crosses more than 50%, they become Muslim Invaders like Muhammad Bin Quasim, Mohammad Gori, Taimur Lung, Changhez Khan, etc. It was happened at Kashmir Valley on 19th January 1990. Radicals Islamists had given three options to Kashmiri Hindu. First was to change their religion, or second was to migrate from Kashmir Valley, or third was to embrace death. Wives, Mothers, Daughters and Sisters of Kashmiri Hindus were raped and killed brutally. Kashmiri Hindus were being killed one by one. Their Houses were being torched. State Government was quite mute. Central Government made Home Minister of India to Mufti Muhammad Saeed, Father of Mahbooba Mufti in December 1989. Farukh Abdullah was Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir. No one did anything to give relief to Kashmiri Hindus. First time in Independent India, First time Muslim was made Home Minister of India and Kashmiri Hindus were raped, killed and kicked out from Muslim Majority the Kashmir Valley. Whatever was happened on 19th January 1990, it was not a sudden work. It was being planned long time ago. When Mufti Muhammad Saeed became Home Minister of India under Vishwanath Pratap Singh’s Prime Ministership, Radicals Islamists found morale support from State Government led by National Conference and Home Minister of India. That is why, Kashmiri Hindus were made disappeared from the Kashmir Valley. Once First Home Minister of India Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel suggested First Prime Minister of India Jawahar Lal Nehru to reside Sikhs and Hindus who were coming from Pakistan after partition of India. But First Prime Minister of India Jawahar Lal Nehru did not agree and replied that Kashmiriyat would finish. If Displaced Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan were resided in Kashmir Valley, No Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus would have taken place.

In 1975, an agreement took place between the then Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Sheikh Abdullah of National Conference in which Sheikh Abdullah became Chief Minister of Jammu & Kashmir after 22 years. This tie laid Jammu and Kashmir towards India. JKLF (Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front) based in POK (Pakistan Occupied Kashmir) opposed this agreement. After the defeat in 1971 war of Pakistan, ISI (Inter-Service Intelligence) plotted to spread Wahhabism at the place of Sufism in Jammu & Kashmir. Sufism Islam was present there from 13th century, but slowly and slowly Wahhabism took over Sufism. It communalized Jammu & Kashmir a lot. Religious Bigotry began in the State. The then Chief Minister Sheikh Abdullah changed the name of 2500 villages into Islamic names. It was formal starting of Islamization of Jammu & Kashmir. Sheikh Abdullah began to deliver speeches in the mosques of Jammu & Kashmir like he used to deliver in 1930s. He gave openly communal speeches and said “MUKHBIR” to Hindus of Valley and declared that Hindus were informers of Indian Government. Since then, Exploitation of Kashmiri Hindus was started. In 1980, war between Soviet Union and Afghanistan occurred. Afghanistan gave arms to Afghani Jihadi to fight against Soviet Union with help of United States of America. After war, Pakistan Spy Agency ISI turned Afghani Jihadi towards Jammu & Kashmir. It was starting point of militancy in Jammu & Kashmir. Kashmiri Hindus were threatened and began to kill. Abduction, Kidnapping, rapes, etc. of Kashmiri Hindus were in trend in the valley. Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front and Jamaat – E – Islami made propaganda against India. Militant Maqbool Bhat of JKLF was executed death penalty by High Court of Jammu & Kashmir in 1984. Muslim Kashmiri youth did a large violent protest against India. At that time, the then Chief Minister Farukh Abdullah, Son of Sheikh Abdullah, visited POK (Pakistan Occupied Kashmir) and shared stage with Chief of Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front. This act of Farukh Abdullah embarrassed too much. The then Prime Minister of India Rajeev Gandhi replaced Farookh Abdullah as Chief Minister and made his brother in Law G M Shah Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir. G M Shah had no public support so he decided to do favour for Radical Islamists. He took decision to build a mosque at a temple in Jammu area in February 1986. This led tension between Hindus and Muslims in Jammu area. Protest was continued against this decision. He returned to Kashmir valley and told Muslims, “ISLAM KHATARE MEIN HAI.” (ISLAM IS IN DANGER). The then Chief Minister erupted negative sentiments against Kashmiri Hindus in the Kashmir Valley. Kashmiri Hindus were begun to target by Kashmiri Muslims cum Militants of Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front and others terror outfits. Kashmiri Hindus were killed. Females were abducted, raped and killed with cruelty. Houses of Hindus were plundered and torched. On 12th March 1986, M G Shah Government was scrapped and the then Governor of Jammu & Kashmir Jagmohan took over charge of Jammu & Kashmir. In 1987, State Election was held in which Radical Islamists under MUSLIM UNITED FRONT were defeated by Secular Parties Congress and National Conference. After election, terrorists were killing everybody who spoke Pro-India thought. Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front launched Anti-India and Anti-Kashmiri Hindu Propaganda. They launched a new slogan “NIZAM – E MUSTAFA. (RULE OF MOHAMMAD). Radical Islamists started campaign Islamist Social, Economic and Political System there. It was totally planned preparation to cut Jammu & Kashmir off from India. Governments were changed, but their agenda against India and Kashmiri Hindus never changed. In July 1988, JKLF launched a more propaganda for Independence and Separation from India and chanted slogans to mingle with Pakistan.

Killing to Kashmiri Hindus was started from 14th September 1989 when Terrorists killed Lawyer and BJP Leader Pandit Tika Lal Taploo.  A fear came into the mind of Kashmiri Hindus. One by one Prominent names of Kashmiri Hindus were being terminated by Terrorists. At that time, Vishwanath Pratap Singh was Prime Minister of India. Peoples Democratic Party Chief Mufti Muhammad Saeed was Home Minister of India. National Conference Chief Farooq Abdullah was Chief Minister of Jammu & Kashmir. Central Government was weak due to Coalition Government. A large group of Political Parties was in Government. Mufti Muhammad Saeed became first Muslim Home Minister of India. Ram Mandir Issue was also ringing. Circumstances went to favour of Radical Islamists. High Court Judge Nilkanth Ganju who had given death penalty to Maqbul Bhat was shot dead. Daughter of Home Minister of India Mufti Muhammad Saeed was abducted and Terrorists of JKLF demanded to release five prominent terrorists. This demand was fulfilled by Central Government of India within Indian premises. On 4th January 1990, News Paper AFTAB threatened openly to Kashmiri Hindus to leave Jammu & Kashmir on the behalf of Militant Outfit HIZBUL MUJAHIDDIN. At that time, Jagmohan was made Governor of Jammu & Kashmir who once dismissed Farooq Abdullah Government in 1984. Farooq Abdullah resigned from CMship because of Jagmohan. Governor Jagmohan dissolved Jammu & Kashmir Assembly on 19th January 1990. This was the date when Radical Islamists announced from about 1100 Mosques to vacate Kashmir Valley to Kashmiri Hindus and gave three options to Kashmiri Pandits. First was to adopt Islam, or second was to flee way from Jammu & Kashmir, or third was to embrace death. On 21st January 1990, GAWKADAL MASSACRE took place in Sri Nagar in which Indian Security Forces opened fire on Radical Islamist Protestors. At least 50 persons died. But Kashmiri Hindus were thrown out from Kashmir Valley.

Kashmiri Hindus were cheated by their elected leaders who advocated Unity of Hindus and Muslims. No Pakistani Army or Pakistani Citizens came to India and kicked Kashmir Hindus out of their own ancestor’s houses and properties. Those were Indian Muslims who celebrated every festival altogether with Kashmiri Hindus. Previous Indian Governments must have scrapped Article 370 and Article 35A. Indians could not purchase land there because of such Articles. Sheikh Abdullah went on speeches against other religions and India. Muslims were radicalized against Hindus. At present, wherever Population of Muslims crosses more than 40%, they begin to harass Hindus at that place. There are a lot of places where people cannot chant slogans in the favour of India. People cannot celebrate victory over Pakistan in Cricket Match. Some Leaders in India who do appeasement politics for Vote Banks. Such Leaders must understand that Hindus never create hurdles to any religion, but Hindus are targeted. Terrorist Attacks in India were categorized to conspire against Hindus in 2008.

Females of Kashmiri Pandits were raped and killed in front of their family members. Males were done genocide. Houses of Kashmiri Pandits were torched. Temples were demolished one by one. By now, Not a single Kashmiri Pandit was sent back to their own forefather's house. At Present, Indefinite supports are being collected against CAA. Truth is that CAA is not against any Citizens of India. It is very unfortunate that Opposition Parties never sat on DHARANA for Kashmiri Pandits. Kashmiri Pandits were and are the Citizen of India. Indian Opposition Parties and some intellectuals are with Foreign Citizens who intrude illegally in India. Such Parties are supporting Illegal Intruders, not Kashmiri Pandits who have Indian Citizenship. All Activists of Human Rights kept and keep silent on forcefully Migration of Kashmiri Pandits. 30 years on, No body staged Dharna and worried to save Indian Constitution in Jammu & Kashmir. Congress and other Political Parties have not changed their working towards India by now.

 

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US Presidential Election 2020 is set to take grip across the world. US President is considered most powerful person in the world. His election process is also very tough. In US, there are two political parties Democratic and Republican. There is a direct election process for President of US. A lot of debates on National & International issues are processed among the candidate of US Presidential Election. There is four year term for President of US. Within party cadre, Aspirants of Presidential Candidate debate one another on National & International Issues. At last Voting is made within party cadre for nomination for Presidential Election and only one candidate becomes candidate of Presidential Election from each party. A number of rallies are organized where Candidates debate each other on issues. There are only two political parties so only two candidates are in the fray for Presidential Election. There are many nominations for Presidential Election from each political party. These candidates fights on National & International issues each one another within their respective party.

There are innumerable issues in Presidential Election 2020. Trade is an inflammable issue because era of raising tariff has been begun. US is continuously a prey of mass shooting. Gun Control is also big issue. Climate change is an evergreen issue across the world. US President Donald Trump nullified Paris Pact on Climate Change. Its effect is running the world. Immigration has been tougher for Non – Americans. It can play a vital role in the election. Border issue with neighbouring countries is big issue how to handle it because it can bitter relation with neighbouring countries. US is building wall on Mexico Border to stop illegal immigration. President Donald Trump scrapped OBAMA CARE. He needs health policy to counter with OBAMA CARE. Discipline in Governing Bodies of US Administration like Judiciary, Defence, Advisory Committee, etc. is matter of concern because President’s supporting bodies have not rescued him when needed. Creditability of US President is also huge issue because President Trump’s Tweets creates hurdle and raise a question on this designation. Sliding position of US President in International Politics is an issue. It must be discussed. Candidate of Democrat will leave no stone unturned to defeat to Donald Trump.

When Donald Trump became President of United States of America, he revised trade deals with rest of world because it was his top priority during election campaign. First of all, he replaced NAFTA (North America Free Trade Agreement with USMCA (United States – Mexico – Canada Agreement). He negotiated with Mexico and Canada. NAFTA was established by these Nations in 1994. Although USMCA was not revolutionary deal. It was like NAFTA. Now this deal was not fruitful for Donald Trump. He revised US Tariff for rest of world. He raised protectionism in US and tried to lower tariffs for American goods to exported countries like India and China. It is totally correct that at present most of the Nations do not open their market for others Nations despite FTA (Free Trade Agreement). World is becoming a protected economy. This issue is big agenda for Presidential Election 2020. US is world leader for economy so American’s points of view on this inflammable issue would be a great parameter. Although china is giving a tough competition to US, but Chinese Imported Goods is biggest challenge for rest of countries how to handle with balance of trade and balance of payment. Nobody likes Chinese Goods, but its products are ruling over world. To save the world economy, Management on Chinese imported goods must be identified and sorted out within a frame. World must unite on this issue. World can give US a leadership to US to tackle this issue.

It is also a big issue for Election 2020. At present, US President is not being taken seriously through his dialogue on Social Sites. Administration differences come on the surface with internal and external issues. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) have started to ignore him. European Nations like Great Britain, France, Germany, etc. look daggers to US. Trump Administration is favourite With China. Face off on economic issues ended with Economic curbs. Respect on President’s Designation of US hurt most. Every democratic leader must think first, then tweets or issues statements. Donald Trump is not such personality because he is a business man. He has no proper experience of diplomatic arena in the world. Vladimir Putin, Xi Jinping, Narendra Modi, Shinzo Abe handle situation with diplomatic dialogues. Head of a Country must be politically and diplomatically correct. Donald Trump has given a lot of reason by which it can be understood that he needs to read the situation, then delivers his views. He leads world most powerful country so his dialogues do not effect for him, but US. His irresponsible working style has led him for impeachment. House of Representatives cleared his impeachment and became third President of US who has been impeached on the basis of abuse of Power and obstruction of Congress.

US President replaced his executive team at multiple times. He changed National Security Advisor, White House Chief of Staff, White House Communication Director, Secretary of Health and Human Services, etc. it means that by now he has not found his correct team to lead the US. Although his first tenure is on the verge of end.

US always becomes witness of mass shooting in which innocent people were killed. US Constitution allows to keep Arms for Self -Protection as per Second Constitutional Amendment 1791. Although State Agencies monitors Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and explosives, but reign in mass shooting has not been eliminated. Mass shooting incidents are being continuously taken place at regular interval in US. There is need to strict law at country wide. It is an inflammable issue for Presidential Election 2020. The Gun Control Act 1968 regulates that Citizens and Legal residents should be more than 18 years old to purchase shot guns and rifles. Such a heinous crimes witnessed in 2016 when 49 people were killed in an Orlando Nightclub. A survey tells World that 46% Citizens of US keep firearms.

President Donald Trump did splendid job for controlling illegal immigrants from Mexico to US after building Wall along the border of Mexico. Although the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) 1986 was passed by The then President Ronald Reagan by which was legalized all illegal immigrants by 1st January 1982. It was first time when attempted to control Illegal Immigrants in US. After that US enacted the Immigration Act 1990 in which legal immigrants enter for work every year, was selected for working visas. In 1996, US enacted the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act in which 15 Years punishment was scheduled if Undocumented Immigrants was found in US. Mexico is most dangerous spot to enter in US for not only for Mexicans but also other nation people. First time, George Bush in 1990 constructed 14 miles fencing along the San Diego – Tijuana Border. After that George W. Bush started a wall between Mexico and US to stop illegal migrants in 2006. After that Barak Obama did nothing to control Illegal Immigration. President Donald Trump took strict action against immigrants who entered from Mexico. He started once again building wall. This wall is 3145 Kilometers along the border of Mexico. 

Climate is an inflammable issue in Presidential Election 2020. President Donald Trump scrapped Paris Climate Deal 2016 done by Barak Obama. Barak Obama signed with all nations to reduce Fossil Fuel Emissions from US Power Plant. Greta Thunberg, a Jovial Activist of Sweden on Climate raised her voice from Europe to bring natural things back. Finally President Donald Trump did not want to reduce fossil fuel emissions in US. Rest of world criticized US many times for withdrawing Paris Climate Deal. Many European Nations are very angry with Donald Trump. Now Davos 2020 in Switzerland would be hot spot where once again World Community will meet and decide on this issue. President Donald Trump is in pressure to attend Davos 2020 because Internal Politics, he is being impeached and External Politics, he will face stunt oppose from World Leaders. Whatever would be happened in Davos 2020 will lead an agenda for Presidential Election 2020.

Health Care is always issue for Polls in the US. When Barak Obama was elected the President of US. He brought PPACA (Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act). That is called OBAMACARE. In this act, Health Benefits are being provided especially to middle class family and lower income groups.  President Donald Trump brought ACA (Affordable Care Act) to kill PPACA (Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act). It was short time health care from three months to 12 months. But ACA could not be passed in the House due to support for PPACA.

Although President Donald Trump have done many things which are not a character of US President. Every American must think that there is any better option for Presidential Ship. Donald Trump secures American Border so that No Intruders illegally could enter US. He made strict VISA Policy and Green Card System by which Americans could get jobs at first preference. President Trump always stand with American Industrialists who provide jobs at large numbers. He raised Harley Davidson Bike’s issue to decrease Tariff with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi. President Trump tried his best to deal with North Korea keep out of Nuclear Bomb from North Korea. With Iran, He is using everything to stop Iran for making Nuclear Bomb. He never pretended with interest of his country. He is very open to deal with China so that Trade and Tariff war could end between both Nations. Donald Trump gave slogan “MAKE AMERICA GREAT AGAIN” in 2016 Presidential Election. This slogan was first time used by Ronald Reagan in 1980 Presidential Election. Result was that Soviet Union was broken into 15 Nations. American must see now Donald Trump how he will make “MAKE AMERICA GREAT AGAIN.”

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INTRODUCTION

First united fight was broken out against East India Company in 1857. India was divided into many independent states. All Kings and Nawabs united for its freedom. East India Company came to India only for its own profit. Such a policy began to irritate Indians. They knew that East India Company earned profits in trade from selling finished goods and purchasing raw materials. Indian Businesses were destroyed so that English Finished Goods could have sold in Indian Market. This policy led a huge dissatisfaction among Indians. Jobs in East India Company were reserved for only British Citizens. Discrimination in Jobs fumed Indian Upper and Middle class. Recruitment was open in only Company Army. There were jobs only for lowest ranks as Sepoys. Sepoys from India were paid less salary than Company British Troops. Indian Sepoys revolted many times against East India Company, but they were suppressed by East India Company. Lord Dalhousie launched Doctrine of Lapse in which if Ruler of state was died childless, that state would be merged into East India Company. It was most dissatisfaction factors for Indian State Rulers. Revolt took place and collective attacks on East India Company restored its own territories very quickly. But there were a lot of kings and nawabs who still were giving full support to army of East India Company. Army of Company started Public Executing of captured revolutionaries. East India Company once again re-captured almost all territories with the help of Indian Kings and Nawabs. Some of them revolted against East India Company, but many of them betrayed India. All sacrifices were made by Mangal Pandey, Kuwar Jagdish Singh, Rani Laxmi Bai, Tatya Tope, etc. went in vein. After revolution of 1857, British Government took over East India Company. British Government began its rule in India and gave more facilities to Indians.

EDUCATION

Thomas Babington Macaulay made good move for English in 1835. English was taught at priority level in all the school. On the eve of revolution of 1857, East India Company established three universities (Calcutta University, Madras University and Madras University). Education of medium was English. After revolution, English was made compulsory in all elementary and secondary schools. Thousands of elementary and secondary schools were opened in India. British Government wanted to teach British Educational System in India. Christian Missionaries came to India and started to teach Christianity in the name of education. English became necessary in educational system of India. Indians also started to pass matriculation and became sub civil servants. A lot of Indian Students attracted Law Education. By 1911, British India have almost 186 colleges for higher education. Due to such step of British Government, Indians looked beyond the Indian Traditional Education. Persian language was used as official language but English slowly and slowly eradicated Persian language. Indian studied English Literature and European History. A lot of philosophers’s thought on Liberty, Equality, Right, etc. were taught to Indians. Many freedom fighters of Indian National Movement passed Law in England.

ECONOMIC SITUATION

After taking over by British Government, India was growing 1% rate and its population also contributed 1% at every year. Although British Government was more sensitive for Indian Economy than East India Company. India became a colony of British Government but it added many positive atmosphere for India. India was given new seeds and fertilizers for farming. At that time, most of population in India was dependant on agriculture. Due to selfishness of British Government, GDP of India fell down drastically from 20% to 5%. Jamshedji Tata defied British Government not to take cheap technology for milling yarn machine from Britain. He got it managed to bring milling yarn machine from United States of America. After that Tata Group wanted to enter in Heavy Steel Industry. In 1890, Tata Iron and Steel Company set up a plant in Bihar. This time also Tata Group snubbed British Technology. They took American Technology. Tata Group was a nationalist ideological group but it did not support most to Congress due to its extensive support to Trade Unions. Railway was spreading in India as per every possible steps. It was divided into zones and given advisory to every zone to build Railway Infrastructure because of transporting goods from place to place. Irrigation was improved much. Canals were made and improvised. Upper Ganga Canal was reached to Kanpur. It was almost 560 Km from Haridwar to Kanpur. It boosted irrigation of that area. One thing was same during British Government, that was exporting raw materials to Great Britain and importing finished goods from there like East India Company earlier.  

CONGRESS

After revolution of 1857, British Government was keen to watch over Indians. Preparation of revolution was a secretive task. East India Company was unable to trace it on time. Base of East India Company was shaken. British wanted a council in which Indians would be members. Through conversation, Indians could give suggestions to British Government for social welfare. In this way, British could know what was going on in Indian Minds. If suggestions were in favour of British, it would be accepted. Whole preparation was to abort to repeat revolution 1857 once again. Former District Magistrate of Kanpur during revolution 1857 Mr. A O Hume with elite Indians founded Congress in 1885 in Mumbai. It was totally a watch over organization who was to support British Government to stay in India for long time. Mr. Vyomesh Chandra Banerjee became first President of Congress. Many Colleges and Universities were founded in which Indians also started to study Western Political theories and philosophers. In 1867, British Government granted autonomous status to Canada and democracy came into practice there. Such demands also rose in India. Indians who had such thought, were interested to join Congress for their demands on democracy. Congress was founded to help British Government to stay on, but some nationalists like Bal Gangadhar Tilak joined it for Indian approach. Conflicts of interest became big issue. Finally Congress was divided into two stream as Moderates and Extremists. Viceroy Lord Curjon divided Bengal into west Bengal and east Bengal as per population of hindu and muslim in 1905. Congress opposed this move so muslim leaders of congress quit congress and made muslim league. Muslim League welcomed English Government to make a separate state for muslims. Gopal Krishn Gokhale represented Moderates and Extremists chose Bal Gangadhar Tilak as their Leader. Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became a mass party and led Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920, Civil Dis-obedience Movement 1930 and Quit India Movement in 1942. Mahatma Gandhi became supreme leader of Congress.

ALL INDIA MUSLIM LEAGUE

Muslim League was made to support Viceroy Lord Curjon’s move for bifurcation of Bengal. It was founded by Nawab Khwaja Salimullah in Dhaka in 1906. All India Muslim League was centre for partition of India and Pakistan. First of all, Muslim League wanted two nations theory from English Government. Muslim League never launched any political movements for freedom. It mobilized its religion across the world. Khilafat Movement was designed by All India Muslim League to support Turky against English Government. Although Congress also extended its support to All India Muslim League. Mahatma Gandhi brought Congress and Muslim League altogether. Muslim League only came with congress to agitate against British Government. It was not a mass party. Leaders of this party only wanted separate area for muslims and hindus. Finally All India Muslim League found a leader in Mohammad Ali Jinna who fulfilled its dreams. India was partitioned into nations India and Pakistan. In 1911, Bengal Partition was withdrawn by King George V, but it was further partitioned after independence. Now Muslim League exists itself at Kerala in India.

SWADESHI MOVEMENT

Swadeshi Movement was begun in 1905. It was a tool by which Nationalism was brought in Modern India. It was a step by which Indians tried to hammer English Economy. Raw materials were taken away by British Government. They had technology so its production quantity and quality was better than India made finished goods. Costs of goods were also cheap. In this way, Indian business were set out from Market Competition. It was felt by many leaders so they started Swadeshi Movement. Due to collective steps, it affected badly to British Economy in India. People did not purchase british made clothes and items. They began to buy india made goods and materials. CHARKHA played a very essential role for India. Spinning of Charkha had come in routine. Mahatma Gandhi, Himself, spanned Charkha and made clothes. It is called Khadi. At present it is also running across the world. Quality of Khadi cannot be matched with any brand in the world.  This movement is not ended up by now.

AWARENESS FOR FREEDOM

Due to Russian Revolution in 1917, a lot of new generations inspired Lenin. There was a bend for communism. Authors and Poets wrote communist literature in the country. Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev, Ram Prasad Bismil, etc. revolutionary freedom fighters fought hard against British Rule in the India. Schools and colleges were abandoned for freedom movements. Mahatma became centre of Indian National Movement. First movement “NON – COOPERATION MOVEMENT” was launched by him in 1920. Second was “CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT” in 1930 and last was “QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT” in 1942. A voice of Mahatma Gandhi was able to collect millions of people. An awareness for its own rule rose sharply in the country between 1905 and 1947. Young people joined Congress. Many set up new organizations for freedom. Azad Hind Fauz was established by Subhash Chandra Bose who was selected for Indian Civil Services (Now it is called Indian Administrative Services). He quit ICS and joined Congress. He became President of Congress in 1938. Finally he resigned from Congress due to differences with old leaders of congress. He built Azad Hind Fauz with Ras Bihari Bose. Azad Hind Fauz fought against British Government during second world war.

THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1935

The Government of India Act 1935 was drafted and passed for India by British Parliament. The Government of Burma Act 1935 was also brought and Burma was removed completely from India. The Government of India Act 1935 was largest act in the British Parliament by 1999. In 1999, British Parliament made The Greater London Authority Act 1999. It is now largest act of British Parliament. The Government of India Act 1935 gave more teeth to Indian National Movement. This act provided autonomy of Indian Provinces in British India. Direct Election took place and representatives were elected. Provincial Governments were formed. British Government kept a right to suspend these government if needed. Indian Constitution accepted almost all things from this act. Election was held as per federation of India.

PARTITION OF INDIA & PAKISTAN

It was expected before independence, Pakistan would be given birth. At last Viceroy Lord Mountbatten bifurcated Hindustan for Hindus and Pakistan for Muslims. British followed the policy of “DIVIDE AND RULE” while leaving from India, they made two nations as per population based provinces. Millions of Muslim migrated to Pakistan from Hindustan. It same happened for Hindus too. Communal Riots erupted in both countries. Trains from Pakistan to Hindustan and from Hindustan to Pakistan started to come to its destinations with dead people. It was one of the biggest scar on Indian History. Despite such riots, India gave Rs. 65 crores to Pakistan for establishing itself. It was said that Hindustan was considering 10 kilometer corridor to Pakistan from West Pakistan (Now Pakistan) to East Paksitan (Now Bangladesh). It was very terrific if took place into realty. Pakistan was made for Muslims Invaders like Muhammad Bin Quasim, Mahmood Ghazanavi, Muhammad Gauri, Changhez Khan, Taimur Lung, Babar, Nadir Shah, Ahmad Shah Abdali who looted and torn Hindustan many times. They demolished Indian Ancient Temples and modified all temples into mosques. Afghanistan, Myanmar (Burma), Pakistan, Bangladesh these were made country from Hindustan.

BIG VICTORY FOR HINDUS

Although it was a big victory for Hindus in Hindustan because by 12th century, Hindustan was only for Hindus. When one by one Muslim Invaders came and looted Hindustan due to lack of Unity among Indian Kings. By 16th Century, it was become totally Muslimistan. No Hindus King was able to tackle Muslim Badshah. Although Rajput and Maratha showed its bravery but it was not enough to establish a Hindu State. Hindus Kings were duped by East India Company once again along with Muslim Nawabs. Then at least 100 years, East India Company sucked Indian Economy. After 1857, British Government followed stick and carrot. British Government made us greedy for Equality, Freedom, Human Rights, etc. but at last they believed “DIVIDE & RULE” to stay in Hindustan. They partitioned Hindustan and Pakistan. As per Hindus Point of View, it was a big victory for Hindustan. In democratic system, leaders were chosen as per voting. A lot of Hindu Leaders sacrificed their life for freedom. After independence, Hindus came into main stream despite giving birth to Pakistan.

CONCLUSION

Hindustan bore all attacks on its soil. From 12th Century by now, Hindus was not a collective force. They were divided into caste. After independence, Hindus are not Hindu. They represent their caste, not their religion. Pakistan made an Islamic Country, but Hindustan became Secular India. At that time of partition, Hindustan was totally for Hindus. Despite this fact, it was made a Secular State. Vote Bank Politics carried on. Muslims who were then only 4%, now they are at least 25% because of secular state. All India Muslim Personal Law Board was made to take decision on their beliefs. Judiciary is only for Hindus. It is seemed that Indian Secular Constitution is only for Hindus. There is a hope for Hindus from 2014 when Hindus dominated political party came to power and it is once again repeated in 2019. This political party is on treatment mode for old man made issues for weakening Hindus. ALL Hindus must be supportive for such agenda if they want its antiquity.

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INTRODUCTION

Due to Industrialization in Europe, Many Countries like France, Netherland, Spain, England, Portugal, etc. started taking interest in other countries for raw materials and selling their finished goods in new markets. Europeans had technology but not much raw materials. They started to search new lands for growing raw materials. Technology produced large production volume. Starting of Capitalism had been started. Magellan, Vasco de Gama, Columbus went out from Europe to search new places for raw materials and new markets for its production. European Countries reached every part of the Earth. Magellan, a Portuguese Explorer, reached same point from east to west. It was proved that The Earth is round. Columbus reached mistakenly to American Continent in 1492. Vasco de Gama searched India in 1498. These Explorers were not only searching new markets or raw materials, but also spreading Christianity in the world. Many fighting took place between Explorers and Natives of searched places.

Indian Spices were very famous in Europe from Ancient Time. Through the silk route, Trade operated from Asia to Europe. But due to Muslim Invaders, Silk route had been destroyed. So European Countries started to think new route to connect themselves to Asia. They explored Sea – Route along with Africa, America, Australia, etc.

ENTRY OF EAST INDIA COMPANY

East India Company was a private firm. It was a group of capitalists. East India Company came to India for trading. But slowly and slowly, they took lion share in Indian Administration due to lack of Unity among Indian Kings and Nawabs. Officials of Company took permission to keep a small army for their protection. This small army helped a lot to establish for East India Company’s Administration in India. British helped those kings with its small army in war who gave more rights for trade. Indian kings and Nawabs were always fighting on riff-raff issues. East India Company cashed this opportunity to win their confidence and made it granted more facilities for British. Most of stakeholders in East India Company were very influential people. They had monopoly for foreign trade.

INTERFERENCE IN INDIAN POLITICAL SYSTEM

In 1757, East India Company’s Officials did not want Bengal Nawab Siraj-ud-daulah to remain Bengal’s Nawab. They persuaded his Wazir Mirzafar if Siraj-ud-daulah was defeated in Battle of Plassey, he would be Nawab of Bengal. Mirjafar betrayed Nawab Siraj-ud-daulah in the battle field. Robert Clive hoisted the flag of British in India. Mirjafar was made the Nawab of Bengal. East India Company took permission for everything as they wanted. Ideology of East India Company was understood by Many Kings and Nawabs. East India Company’s Official started to take interest out of Bengal. They eyed on Bihar and Delhi. In 1765, Battle of Buxar took place and in this battle, Bengal Nawab Mir Quasim, Awadh Nawab Shuja-ud-daulah and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II fought collectively but they were defeated by British Hector Munro. This war cemented the power of East India Company in India for long time.

CAPTURE MAJOR PROVINCES IN INDIA

Robert Clive clinched Bengal and Munro captured all DEEWANI Rights from Mughal. In this way, it can be said that Bengal and Bihar both had come in hammer of East India Company’s rules in India. After that, Haider Ali and His son Tipu Sultan restricted British Empire, but in 1799 defeat of Tipu Sultan, there was nobody in south india who could restrict East India Company. Marathas were also brave worriers, but after the death of Nana Fadanvis, there was total anarchy among Kinghts Scindias of Gwaliar and Ujjain, Gaekwads of Baroda, Holkars of Indore and Malwa, Bhonsales of Nagpur, Meheres of Vidharbh and Puars for Dhar and Dewas. Nana Fadanvis was a diplomatic person who understood tricksters of East India Company. Due to lack of unity among Knights of Maratha Empire. One by one they were defeated by East India Company. With the defeat of the Marathas, no army power represented a threat for the Company any longer.

WELFARE PROGRAMS OF BRITISH RULE FOR INDIANS

CIVIL SERVICES

This was a revolutionary step taken by East India Company. Although it was totally for English Youngsters. East India Company needed energetic people who could become an Administrator. East India Company was tackling many issues like custom, taxes and justice. East India Company spent bulk amount of money on its Army. War was taking place at every riff-raff things with Indian Kings and Nawabs. It was very essential to regulate such things for welfare of East India Company. To introduce Civil Service for India, it was a big decision. After that, Many Freedom Fighters of India cracked ICS (Indian Civil Service). Before this, only sons of Raja or Nawab could become administrator, it opened the door for poor to become an Administrator. Although first phase of Civil Services, it was only for English People. In second phase, Indians were included in this prestigious process.

EDUCATION

East India Company concentrated on education in the India. The policy ran three goals. First of all to sponsor Indians in their own culture, second was to advance knowledge of India, and third one was to apply practically that knowledge for welfare of government. The first goal was started Warren Hastings. Hastings laid stone the Madrasa 'Aliya’ for the study of Arabic and Persian languages & Islamic Law in Kolkata. There was starting of Madrasa with government’s nod. The second goal was suicide bomber for East India Company. To collection information about past glory of India, it might re-organize Indians altogether. East India Company stood in India with its formulae “DIVIDE & RULE”. At last, the Benares Sanskrit College was founded in Varanasi in 1791 by Lord Cornwallis. It was attracted by many Indian Scholars and Some English Officials. The third related goal to grow the philosophy that could be better administrators. Such thought was led in 1800 to found the College of Fort William in Calcutta by Lord Wellesley. After that, Education Policy of India took place in East India Company’s Administration. It established the Poona Sanskrit College in Pune in 1821 and the Calcutta Sanskrit College in 1824. East India Company pressurized Indians to learn English Language and applied it in every educational institutions of East India Company. Purpose was to connect Indians with western culture and civilization.

JUSTICE SYSTEM

Although East India Company controlled whole Bengal in the mid of 18th century but Judiciary system was donned by Nawab as the Chief Law Officer (Nawab Nazim) and his deputy as the Naib Nizam. It was established in Murshidabad. There were hierarchy system for local justice. Faujdars, Muhtasils, Kotwals, etc. worked as a Successor of His father. By this time, East India Company established three presidency in Calcutta (Kolkata), Bombay (Mumbai) and Chennai (Madras). Success of East India Company gave more power to Company and was given to authority to establish “COURTS OF JUDICATURE” by Charles II. A Charter was granted in 1683. This right was renewed in the subsequent charters granted by James II and William III in 1686 and 1698 respectively. In 1726, It was considered that European Residents needed a justice system in all presidency town and East India Company established Mayer’s Court in Presidency Court. All courts were regulated by the Court of Directors of the East India Company. In this way, Modern System of Judiciary was started in the India.

SOCIAL REFORM

India had a lot of social evils like Sati Pratha, re-marriage denied to Widow, Child Marriage, etc. firstly East India Company did not take interest in the traditions of Hindu Religion. All were freed to practice its own tradition. Among all social evils, Sati Pratha was notorious. It was a practice when a male died, then his wife was also burnt alive on his pyre. Preparation of Sati was included to feed Cannabis and Datura (A poisonous flower) so that burnt to be female would not be sense what was going on and doing herself. Females sacrificed their life due to a social evils. It was strictly followed order of Governor General Lord William Bentinck. Lord William Bentinck ended Sati Pratha and tried his best to reform in social evils of Hindu Practices. The Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856 was enacted on the eve of first Revolution of India for Freedom. Although very few widows actually remarried. Some Indian reformers, such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, etc. had done really splendid tasks to eradicate India from social evils.

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

By 1836, the East India Company had courier service which connected limited communication among the Presidency towns of Fort William (Calcutta), Fort St. George (Madras), and Bombay). This service was not to connect person to person. A per 17th Act of British Government in 1837, Public Post was set up in India. Post Offices were established in the area captured by East India Company. Separate offices were built and appointed Post Master at every Post Office. In 1850, first major modification took place for communication in India. 17th Act was amended with the Indian Postal Act, 1854. A Director General was appointed to operate postal services in India. In this way, India moved first communication system among natives of India. Along with Postal service, Telegraph was started during 1820 to 1830. It was an electric communication with the help of Semaphore (An Installation was used to send optical signals). East India Company considered seriously to set up telegraph towers. Tower was to construct 100 feet high and distance between two towers was 8 kilo Meter. Although such towers were built in Bengal and Bihar, the India-wide semaphore network never took off.

TRANSPORT SYSTEM

A Revolutionary Transport System Railway was introduced in 1825 between the Stockton and The Darlington, first inter-city railway service in England. This Transport System was spread over in England. After huge success of Railway, British Government decided to spread over the world. East India Company was directed to establish network of Railway in its colonies. Governor General Lord Dalhousie took this responsibility to construct Railway in India for experimental because floods, storms, raining and insects could create hurdle for Railway in India. Finally first leg of the Railway in India was completed between Bombay and Kalyan in 1853, total distance 21 kilo meter. Lord Dalhousie advocated speedy work on railways in India for taking social and economic advantages. He directed 4 railway routes in India. First was from Kolkata to Lahore, second was from Agra to Bombay, third one was from Bombay to Madras, and fourth was from Madras to the south western Malabar Coast. His proposal was accepted completely by Directors of East India Company. The technology of railway is very new for Indians. There was no engineering back ground in India. All engineers were brought in from England. Those engineers were not aware about Indian Language and Culture.

IRRIGATION SYSTEM

The first irrigation System took place in 1817. Although this work was only expansion of previous works of the Raja and the Nawab. This project was for Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Bengal with river Ganga, Yamuna and its tributaries. There was also an irrigation system for Madras Presidency. A small dam was constructed on the river Kaveri before 1,500 years and it was known as the Grand Anicut. In 1836, Sir Arthur Cotton made dam improved and it was a lot beneficial for farmers. After that, King of Vijay Nagar Krishna Dev Raya built some dams on the river Tungabhadra. His all built dams were done all maintenance works for running it successfully by East India Company. There were a lot of irrigation works done by East India for their own profit, but it was too much profitable for India too.

CONCLUSION

At last, it can be said that East India Company took innumerable benefits from Indian Terriroty, but India developed itself from systemic growth model of England. England eradicated many social evils from India. They regulated that raw materials from India to England and finished goods from England to India would flow continuously for which Irrigation System, Transport System, Communication System, Justice System, etc. were made strong. Although it was totally done only for East India Company. If it would be seen another side that Indian Economical Structures were made strong after Renaissance (Industrial Revolution) in Europe. These all were new dawn for India. India was divided into many independence states and they were battling one another for their ego satisfaction and narrow minded thinking. Lack of Unity, they were defeated one to one by East India Company. Finally they united and revolted against East India Company in 1857. World looked India first time united.

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INTRODUCTION

After second world war, Cold war was started between United States of America and Soviet Union. Whole World was divided into two parts. Both nations attracted Third world countries (Under-developed countries) to cement its own situation. As it can be seen pair of Countries like India and Pakistan, North Korea and South Korea, Eastern Germany and Western Germany, etc. Soviet Union supported India, North Korea, Eastern Germany and United States of America extended cooperation to Pakistan, South Korea, West Germany. United States of America and Soviet Union gave its cooperation to each other’s enemy countries. In the reference of India and Pakistan, India found support from Soviet Union but Pakistan sat in the lap of United States of America. India and Pakistan locked horn in Kashmir. They both needed help from Super Power like United States of America and Soviet Union. Soviet Union gave India full support on Kashmir issue along with cooperation in space study.

According to Book “The Journey Beyond Three Seas”, Russian Traveller Mr. Afanasy Nikitin visited India between 1468 and 1472. After that Many Travellers from India had visited to Russia in 18th Century. Once Russian Tsar (KING) planned to attack on British-India, but assassination of Tsar, this plan was withdrawn by Russian Authority.

Traditionally, India and Soviet Union relation had been grown up by four sectors, Defence, Civil Nuclear, Anti-Terrorism and Space. The IRIGC (INDIA – RUSSIA INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMISSION) is main body that conducts every year summit of both nations. Apart from IRIGC, India and Russia collaborated each other in other organizations like United Nations, BRICS, G20 and Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Russia supported publicly for United Nations Security Council’s permanent member.

At present, India is the second largest importer of Russia in defence sector. Almost 68% military equipment comes from Russia. India has two consulates-general in Saint Petersburg and Vladivostok along with Indian Embassy in Moscow. Russia has also set four consulates-general in Kolkata, Hyderabad, Mumbai and Chennai along with its embassy in New Delhi. According to BBC World Service 2014, 85% of Russian Nationals think positive for India, only 9% differs. 

NEHRU ERA

Modern Relationship between India and Soviet Union had been started in 1950. Soviet Union also itself wanted to connect to third world (Under-Developed Nations). First of all, The then Indian Prime Minister Mr. Jawahar Lal Nehru visited to Soviet Union in 1955. First Secretary of the Communist Party Mr. Nikita Khrushchev also toured India. Soviet Union announced its support to India on Kashmir Issue and Portuguese’s Goa. With strong relation with India, Soviet Union had bad impact with China. Although Soviet Union kept itself indifferent from India-China war in 1962. Soviet Union gave more military cooperation to India than China. Soviet Union agreed to give India Technology of MIG-21 Fighter Plane for manufacturing.

Demise of Nehru Jee, Mr. Lal Bahadur Shastri became Prime Minister of India. Operation Gibraltar took place in Kashmir. Soviet Union gave full support to India as per United States of America provided strategically support to Pakistan. Soviet Union also played a Peace Maker for both Nations.  

INDIRA ERA

Soviet Union helped India a lot during 1971 war with Pakistan. The then American President Mr. Nixon threatened India if India would do anything in Eastern Pakistan (Now Bangladesh). At this delicate time, Soviet Union was standing with India. Finally Pakistan was divided into two Nations. Both Nations had signed same year INDO-SOVIET TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP AND COOPERATION in August 1971. 

During Janata Party Government, Relation between India and Soviet Union did not suffer because Soviet Union gave additional military weapons and economic assistance. Although Janata Party during election campaign criticised Indira Gandhi Government to keep close relation with Soviet Union. Although Janata Party Government also interacted western nations like United States of America, Great Britain, France, etc. 

RAJIV ERA

After assassination of Mrs. Indira Gandhi in 1984, The then Prime Minister Mr. Rajiv Gandhi kept a strong relation with Soviet Union. He visited to Soviet Union in 1985 and signed long-term economic agreements. The then General Secretary Mr. Mikhail Gorbachev paid a visit to India in 1986 and demanded a help from India to develop ASIAN COLLECTIVE SECURITY SYSTEM. India did not do same as he told. At this time due to the Cold War with United States of America, Soviet Union was on the verge of its disintegration.

When Mr. PV Narsimha Rao became the Prime Minister of India, then Soviet Union have broken and ten countries were made. Narsimha Rao Government was also on bankrupt, Fearless Prime Minister took timely decision and started a new era of Economy in India. He accepted LPG (liberalism, Privatization and Globalization). In this period, India was busy itself to launch new economic policy so no any significance changes took place India and Russia.

Now Soviet Union had become Russia so cooperation between India and Russia also changed. Its cooperation was not limited only for Military or Space, it increased its dimension with IRIGC, Vast Military Relations, Economic Relations, Free Trade Agreement, etc. Such changes took place after 2000.

IRIGC

In 2000, Russian President Mr. Vladimir Putin wrote an article in News Paper HINDU, “The declaration on Strategic Partnership between India and Russia signed in October 2000 became a truly historic step.” The then Prime Minister of India Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee forwarded the policy of Mr. PV Narsimha Rao. Both Nations have started IRIGC (The Indo-Russion Inter-Governmental Commission). It is an annually summit of leadership of both Nations. Mr. Manmohan Singh also became torch bearer of relationship between India and Russia.  From 2014, Relationship between India and Russia have been more strong than before. Indian Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi has made a special bond with Russia and Russian Leadership. In 2017, Russian President Mr. Vladimir Putin wrote an article in  News Paper The Times of India on 70 years of friendship between India & Russia just before when Indian Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi was about to reach Russia for celebrating this event.

MILITARY RELATIONS

Soviet Union was prominent partner in defence. When Soviet Union was broken, Military Cooperation was status qua. India buys 68% of its military requirements from Russia. Only 14% from United States of America and 7% from Israel are purchased Military equipment. As per MAKE IN INDIA Policy, India signed 200 KA-226T Twin Engine Helicopter in which 140 is being made in India and rest of 60, Russia will make for India. Brahmos Cruise Missile is being constructed by both nations in which 50.5% share is with India and 49.5% with Russia. At present, this is not only weapons, but also spread over it. Both Nations shook hands for Research and Development, Training, Service to Service Contacts, Joint Military Exercises, etc. In 2012, Russian President Mr. Vladimir Putin visited India and signed for 42 new Sukhois Figher Jets and renovation of old Sukhois Fighter Jets. Both Countries are being indulged to make 5th Generation Fighter Jets with 200 Fighter Jets. It would be completed by 2022. In October, 2018 India signed an agreement with Russia for four S-400 Missile Defence System. It is world most powerful missile defence system. INS Vikramaditya Air Craft Carrier was re-built by Russia.

ECONOMIC RELATIONS

Economic Relations between both countries is on swing. Sectors like Machinery, Electronics, Aerospace, Automobile, Commercial Shipping, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Fertilizers, Industrial Metals, Petroleum Products, Coal, etc. are zooming on economic corridor of both nations. Bilateral trade in 2001 was $1.5 Billion, but in 2012 it was $11 Billion. Now both nations have set a target $30 Billion by 2025. Russia has started to cooperate in Make in India Policy. Both nations agreed for maintenance of old fighter jets like Sukhoi 100, MIG-21, etc. This work would be done through MAKE IN INDIA Policy. India is largest hub of cutting and polishing of diamonds. Bilateral trade would be simplified with tariff for diamonds. India persuaded Russia to build 20 more nuclear power units in next 20 years. North Pole of Earth which is mostly part of Russia has huge uranium, oil and gas. India Giant GAIL is cooperating Russian Companies to find it.

COOPERATION IN ENERGY SECTOR

ONGC took 20% share in Russian Oil Giant Company Sakhalin – l for Oil and Gas project in the Russian federation and invested US $1.7 Billion. The Gazprom, a Russian company and Gas Authority of India established a joint development of a block in the bay of Bengal. Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project is a very good precedent of energy sector. It constructed two units of 1000 MW each in Tamilnadu.

COOPERATION IN SPACE

There is a long history in space sector for cooperation since independent. India’s first satellite ARYABHATA, named on Indian Astronomer, was launched by Soviet Union in 19th April 1975. First Indian space visitor, Indian Air Force Pilot Mr. Rakesh Sharma was launched by Soviet Union in 1984 with SOYUZ – T-11. Russia and India were together for Lander in CHANDRAYAAN – 2, but due to delay, India decided to make its own lander.

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY

Collaboration in Science & Technology for both nations is going through a strong bond. Development of SARAS Air Craft, Semi-Conductor Products, High Purity Materials, Ayurveda, etc. are on ILTP (INTEGRATED LONG-TERM PROGRAM).

NORTH – SOUTH TRANSPORT CORRIDOR

The North-South Transport Corridor is the ship, rail and the road way to move freight among India, Russia, Iran, Europe and Central Asia. This route will cover India, Iran, Azerbaijan and Russia through ship, rail and the road. Main objective of this project is to trade among these countries efficiently. Transport costs were reduced by $2500 per 15 Tons of cargo. This route is also in consideration mode to include Armenia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.

TERRORISM

Both nations vowed to fight terrorism globally. Russia always supports Indian stand on Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan sponsored Terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir is on Russian radar. Russian announced globally that Re-Organizing of Jammu and Kashmir into two Union Territories Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh is totally internal matter of India. Russia escalated what India have done on Article 370 and Article 35A, it is constitutional. It is mentioned in Indian Constitution. This bill was passed 2/3 majority in Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha respectively.

CONCLUSION

India and Soviet Union (Now Russia) are a precedent of friendship. Both nations understand importance to each other. Russia always supported India on Kashmir Issue and helped during adverse situations like 1971 war, Kargil war, Blacklisting Pakistan’s Terrorists and groups in United Nations, etc. India also gave full thumb up to Russia. After broken down of Soviet Union, India cooperated Russia economically. Russia was banned by Western Nations in WTO and G-8, but India bats for Russia to include G-7 and WTO. India invested money in Russia through GAIL (Gas Authority of India Limited) for Natural Gas and Crude Oil. India and Russia both are all weather friend in International Politics and Relation.

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INTRODUCTION

Indian Government gave space to Pakistan to enter across the Line of Control. Pakistan always tried to unrest Jammu & Kashmir. The then Prime Minister Mr. Jawahar Lal Nehru saved KASHMIRIYAT on the cost of demanding new nation or merger with Pakistan, but not in India. Indian Government brought up Jammu & Kashmir as a state of India. Expenditure on Jammu & Kashmir was done by Indian Government. Result was that demanding a separate nation or merger with Pakistan. Pakistan did not stop itself to derail situation of Jammu & Kashmir. 

OPERATION GIBRALTER AND INDIA – PAKISTAN WAR IN 1965

Pakistan had been a failure to capture whole Jammu & Kashmir. United States of America made a military pact with Pakistan in 1950. American Army gave training to Pakistan Army. United States of America provided bulk quantities of armour and sophisticated weapons to Pakistan along with huge economic aid. Pakistan Army trained at least 30,000 Jihadi for Guerrilla war to infiltrate in India. They were given sophisticated weapons to attack on India. This operation was called by Pakistani Army “OPERATION GIBRALTAR”. Pakistan started to think that Pakistan would defeat India. Pakistan made a conspiracy against India with Jihadi. Mr. Ayub Khan took over control on Pakistan as Dictator. He was in full confidence that Pakistan would do really well. He was Army Chief of Pakistan when he captured democratic government of Pakistan.

Pakistan thought that India was in a weak situation after India – China War in which India lost Trans-Karakoram Area. Aksai Chin Area was also taken by People’s Republic Army of China. Pakistan planned to attack on India on 1st September 1965. At this time, Mr. Lal Bahadur Shastri was Indian Prime Minister. He was very honest person. When he became Prime Minister of India, then he changed the designation of Prime Minister of Jammu & Kashmir into Chief Minister of Jammu & Kashmir and SADRA – I – RIYASAT into Governor. At last Pakistan attacked on India its planned date on 1st September 1965 with 30,000 Jihadi Groups and outfits. That attack was done very swiftly. Indian Army controlled them on Line of Control. On the other hand, Indian Troops reached near Lahore on 23rd September. Pakistan Army embarrassed very much.

Finally United Nations told both Nations for ceasefire. Both Nations became status quo. Indian Prime Minister Mr. Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan dictated President Mr. Ayub Khan met at Tashkent in Soviet Union (Now in Ujbekistan). Both Nations agreed to respect Cease fire Line and would not interfere each other’s internal matter. Due to unexpected circumstances, Mr. Lal Bahadur Shastri expired in Tashkent and India lost its advantage on Pakistan after foiled attack of 30,000 Pakistan’s Troops. Kashmir issue once again remained controversial. India had huge advantage at that time because OPERATION GIBRALTER failed badly, but it could not be cashed in.

INDIA – PAKISTAN WAR IN 1971 AND SHIMLA AGREEMENT

After OPERATION GIBRALTER, Pakistan had become itself busy due to Civil War in East Pakistan (Now Bangladesh). There were many discrimination faced by East Pakistan’s People. That is why, they collected and revolted against its authority which was based in West Pakistan. West Pakistan sent Army to handle situation but all in vein. At that time, Mrs. Indira Gandhi was Indian Prime Minister. She took this advantage and fully supported to East Pakistan’s rebellions. Mrs. Gandhi sent Indian Army to East Pakistan. Pakistan once again failed to handle situation. Army Dictator of Pakistan Mr. Yahya Khan misunderstood ground level realty in East Pakistan. Although Mr. Khan requested United States of America’s President Mr. Nixon to raise this issue with India. Mr. Nixon called for Mrs. Gandhi not to do any wrong as per national interest of Pakistan, but Soviet Union came to shield India. Soviet Union dispatched its warship in Bay of Bengal. It was seemed that World was on stand on third world war. At this situation, Indian Army captured 90,000 Soldiers of Pakistan. Finally East Pakistan became a new country named BANGLADESH with immense support of India. Opposition Political Parties of India called Mrs. Gandhi as GODESS DURGA. She wounded Pakistan which could not be healed and cured. Pakistan was divided into two nations as West Pakistan into Pakistan and East Pakistan into Bangladesh.

Once again India was victorious and trampled Pakistan very mercilessly. India had found once again advantage to talk on Kashmir as per releasing 90,000 soldiers of Pakistan. After 1971 war, Pakistan Government was changed as per democratic exercise. Mr. Filfikar Ali Bhutto had chosen Prime Minister of Pakistan. Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Pakistan Prime Minister Mr. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto met at Shimla in India. Mr. Bhutto accepted its country’s defeat but requested to Mrs. Gandhi not to decide the fate of Kashmiris on the behalf of 1971 War. It was not final settlement of Jammu & Kashmir. He told her that Kashmir issue would be sorted out with bilateral meetings. Cease fire Line was re-named into Line of Control. Mrs. Gandhi agreed. It was also a blunder of Mrs. Gandhi as Prime Minister of India. Kashmir issue had once again gone into the darkness.

TERRORISM FROM 1889 AND KASHMIRI PUNDITS WERE KICKED OUT FROM THE STATE

Although it is said that Terrorism had been started from 1989 but It was managed well before a decade. In 1980, The then Chief Minister Mr. Sheikh Abdullah renamed 2500 Villages into the name of Islam. All Hindu’s villages were become Islamic names. This step was very discriminative in the Jammu & Kashmir. It opposed but all in vein. Mr. Farukh Abdullah became Chief Minister of Jammu & Kashmir after death of his father Mr. Sheikh Abdullah. He blindly started discrimination between Hindu and Non-Hindu. He once in 1984 shared dias with Jammu & Kashmir Liberation Front in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir to oppose execution of Maqbool Bhat (A Terrorist of JKLF). This act of Mr. Farukh Abdullah embarrassed very much. Finally Then the Prime Minister of India Mrs. Indira Gandhi dismissed him as anti – India activities in July 1984. It was said that Mr. Farukh Abdullah was ready to be opened Training Camp of Khalistani Terrorists in Jammu. Mr. G. M. Shah was appointed Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir. Chief Minister were replaced but Anti – India Movement was on high. Newly Appointed Chief Minister had no base of supporters. In 1986, he decided to destruct an ancient temple in Jammu and made plan to construct a mosque in which Namaz would be done. This news was very inflammable. All Hindus in whole Jammu and Kashmir were erupted. Riots were started. Chief Minister Mr. M. G. Shah told his supporters that Islam is in danger. After that, Majority of Muslims kicked out Minority of Hindus from Kashmir Area. Only 3% Non-Muslim Population was left there. Females of Non-Muslims were raped and killed. Children were captured and killed mercilessly. Whole Kashmir area had been vacant from Non-Muslims. The then Home Minister of India Mr. Mufti Muhammad Saeed sat and did nothing to restore rights of Non-Muslims in the valley. At last Central Government of India slapped President Rule in the state. Army was deployed. But no any political parties except BJP went to Srinagar to know the situation of Kashmiri Pundits.

KARGIL WAR IN 1999

In 1999, Pakistani Army with Jihadi Groups and Trained Militants captured Kargil area which is connected Ladakh and Kashmir in winter season. It want not feasible for both Indian and Pakistan army to stay on Kargil Mountain during winter near Line of Control. Indian Army climb down Kargil but Pakistan Army infiltrated. When in summer Indian Army tried to back there, they fired at the Army Personnel. That is why, Kargil War broke down. At this same time, The then Prime Minister of India Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee went to Pakistan via road to meet The then Prime Minister of Pakistan Mr. Nawaz Sharif. Pakistan planned this deadly conspiracy against India and crossed LOC. Indian Army pushed back Pakistan Army till Line of Control. It was speculation for Nuclear war between India and Pakistan, but The then U.S. President Mr. Bill Clinton pressured on Pakistan to retreat. Indian Army took Kargil area back into Indian Occupied Kashmir.

UNREST FROM 2008 IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR

People from especially from Kashmir area agitated aggressively against India because Jammu & Kashmir Government decided to give 100 acres of land to Amarnath Shrine Board for shelter of Amarnath Pilgrims in 2008. It was totally Muslim dominated area. An agitation was started massively. Although Indian Government provided shelter to Muslims Pilgrims without any objection. Indian Army timely responded and killed more than 35 protesters and at least 350 were arrested by Jammu & Kashmir Police. More than half dozen Pakistani flags were spotted in the protest and raised slogan for freedom on 18th August, 2008. Such a protest was planned by Pro-Independence Kashmiri Leader Mr. Mir Waiz Umar Farukh. It was quoted by TIME Magazine. Stone pelting acts had been also planned by Separatists Leaders. These Separatists are remote button of Pakistan. So such happened only for 100 acres land for hindus shelter.

END OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR AS A STATEHOOD AND IT WAS BIFURCATED INTO TWO UNION TERRITORIES

In 2014, Congress led UPA Government was defeated by BJP led NDA. In this Lok Sabha Election, BJP came to power with 282 Member of Parliament in Lok Sabha. Full majority came with BJP. 272 Lok Sabha MPs out of 545 Lok Sabha Seats are needed for majority. The then Chief Minister of Gujarat Mr. Narendra Modi became Prime Minister of India. He tied whole nation as Tsunami of his leadership and goal. BJP formed government in Jammu and Kashmir with People Democratic Party Chief Mrs. Mahbooba Mufti. She became Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir in 2015. In 2019, BJP led NDA repeated its success and gained more than Lok Sabha Seats than 2014 Lok Sabha Election. After studies all course of Jammu and Kashmir, Modi Government decided to scrap Article 370 and Article 35A. On 5th of August 2019, President of India Mr. Ram Nath Kovind notified that The State Jammu and Kashmir has no longer special status of Article 370 and Article 35A. President of    India has full right of Legislative Assembly if President Rule occurs in the State so Jammu and Kashmir was under President Rule as per Article 356. After that, a bill was kept by Home Minister Mr. Amit Shah in Rajya Sabha to de-organize State Jammu & Kashmir into two Union Territories. First is Ladakh without Legislative Assembly and second was Jammu and Kashmir with Legislative Assembly. This bill was passed with more than two third majority in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. In this way, Politics on Article 370 and Article 35A had been finished.

CONCLUSION

A Slur on India had been washed out after scrapping Article 370 and Article 35A. Such works can be done by a full majority Government. Commitment of Modi Government towards Terrorism is outstanding. Mr. Sheikh Abdullah only created hurdle for India, but Indian Government only supported him. Kashmiri Hindus were treated second class citizen in the state. They were kicked out from valley. Nobody went to Jammu and Kashmir to ask their wellness. Now Leaders of many political parties visited to Srinagar Airport. Many of them sued Indian Government in Supreme Court of India. All the natives and citizens of India must be joyed and pleasure that a problem 70 years on was trampled with Constitutional way. There is no unconstitutional step had been taken by Indian Government. It was totally game of Pakistani army and ISI (Pakistani Spy Agency).

At present, Pakistan is on the verge of bankrupt. Minimum requirements of its people cannot be fulfilled by Pakistan Authority. Pakistan always boasts for war against India. Every War fought between India and Pakistan, Pakistan paid heavy price, cannot understand its realty that it will never face India in war. Baluchistan raised continuously for its freedom from Pakistan. But Pakistan needs Kashmir. Those area which have with Pakistan, they could not provide democratic requirements as a responsible nation. Pakistan’s aggressiveness will end its existence as a nation near future, if Pakistan will not accept realty.

 

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INTRODUCTION

Jammu & Kashmir has been de-organized into two Union Territories. One is Jammu and Kashmir with Legislative Assembly and second one is Ladakh without Legislative Assembly. After scrapping Article 370 and 35A, it has been integral part of Indian Constitution. As per Article 370, Legislative Assembly was its Constitution Assembly which made Separate Law for Jammu and Kashmir. It means, Indian Parliament’s Law could not be applied in Jammu and Kashmir. As per Article 35A, nobody out of Jammu and Kashmir (from any other state of India) could purchase property in Jammu and Kashmir. It was made provision in 1954 with consent of Central Government of India.

Special status was given to Jammu and Kashmir only for status quo situation in the state. But some of them misunderstood that it was a separate provision of State. Article 370 and Article 35A both were temporary provision for the State. Nobody took risk to finish this temporary provision because of vote bank politics. These two provisions were kept far away people of Jammu and Kashmir from growth and development of state. Pakistan always used Separatist Leaders to create hurdle for Indian Government. Cross-Border Terrorism was brought to unrest Jammu and Kashmir.

PARTITION AND INVASION ON JAMMU & KASHMIR

Basic rule of partition was based on population. If Hindu Population was greater than Muslim Population, State would go with India or Muslim Population was greater than Hindu Population, State would go with Pakistan. During partition of India and Pakistan, three princely states were bone of contention. Hyderabad, Junagarh and Jammu and Kashmir. All three princely states were Muslim-Populated States, but thier Kings or Nizams did not want to merge their states in India or Pakistan. These princely states wanted its own country. The Then Home Minister Mr. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel did army execution on Hyderabad and Junagarh and made it part of India. King of Jammu and Kashmir Hari Singh did not take interest neither Indian Side nor Pakistan Side. As per Muslim population of Jammu and Kashmir, it should have been part of Pakistan, but King Hari Singh did not want to go with India or Pakistan. In 1948, Pakistan with the help of Kabayali Pathans attacked on Jammu and Kashmir. Army of King Hari Singh was mostly dependant of Muslim Soldiers. Those Muslim Soldiers supported Pakistan. King Hari Singh became very frightened and rushed for help to India.

India assured him for security and King Hari Singh agreed and signed with condition that Jammu and Kashmir would be part of India. Indian Army entered in Jammu and Kashmir and started to push Pakistan army back. But unfortunately, The Then Prime Minister Mr. Jawahar Lal Nehru went to United Nations. First of all, United Nations passed Ceasefire Motion. Both Nations India and Pakistan agreed for ceasefire. Ceasefire point is Line of Control. 55% area of Jammu and Kashmir is with India, 30% area of Jammu and Kashmir is Pakistan and China keeps 15% area of Jammu and Kashmir. China’s 15% area is given by Pakistan as gift and some was captured by China from India in 1962 war.

UN MEDIATIONS

India took this issue in United Nations despite oppose of Sheikh Abdulla. United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) was formed by United Nations Security Council. UNCIP told both nations India and Pakistan to ceasefire and called to Pakistan Government for withdrawal of its Army from Jammu and Kashmir. After UNCIP told also India to reduce its Army from Jammu and Kashmir, so an atmosphere could be created for a plebiscite. Both Nations agreed for ceasefire but failed to withdraw and reduce its Army from disputed Jammu and Kashmir by 1st January 1949.

UNCIP visited 3 times to India and Pakistan for a resolution. A two part resolution was proposed in United Nations, but it was totally rejected by Pakistan. Pakistan did not accept to withdraw its army from disputed Jammu and Kashmir, although India was ready to reduce its Army from disputed region for fair plebiscite.

Pakistan made a propaganda that King of Jammu and Kashmir Mr. Hari Singh had no authority and right for accession with India. King Mr. Hari Singh already merged Jammu and Kashmir into India, that is why Indian Army entered in Jammu and Kashmir to defend Jammu and Kashmir as per its own country. It was not accepted by Pakistan Authority. UN Mediators once again tried to resolve this issue, but all in vein. India also assured Pakistan if Pakistan Army would withdraw from there, India also reduced its Army so that Plebiscite could take place.

After failing United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan, United Nations gave its responsibility to Sir Owen Dixen for resolution. Sir Owen Dixen offered DIXON PLAN for both Nations. Dixon agreed this fact that People of Jammu and Laddakh would go with India and Kashmir Valley including Gilgit - Balistan area would prefer to Pakistan. Mr. Dixen wanted region - wise plebiscite for whole State. This proposal was rejected by Pakistan after saying that India would not accept this proposal because India wanted whole Jammu and Kashmir state as per accession to India.

After that, Sir Owen Dixon that People of Jammu and Kashmir were not decisive when both nations army were present there. So Mr. Dixon pressured India to vacate Jammu and Kashmir and was ready its administration to give Sheikh Abdullah. Then a plebiscite could be done when both army would not be present. But this proposal was rejected by India saying Indian Army would present in Jammu and Kashmir for security reason if Pakistan Army would be there. After that, Mr. Dixon had been ready to vacate Pakistan Troops also. But it was not accepted by Pakistan Authority.

ARTICLE 370 & ARTICLE 35A

Article 370 of the Indian Constitution provided special status to Jammu and Kashmir. It was allowed a separate constitution along with separate flag and autonomy on the internal administration of the state Jammu and Kashmir. Constitution was to be constructed by State’s Constituent Assembly. This article was drafted in 21st part of the constitution as temporary, transitional and special. When constituent assembly of Jammu and Kashmir was constructed, took over all the internal administration except defence and foreign issues.

The Constituent Assembly recommended that the articles of the Indian Constitution should be applied to the state or to annul the Article 370 altogether. After discussing with Jammu and Kashmir’s Constituent Assembly in 1954, President of India issued an order that articles of Indian Constitution would apply to the state, when Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir dissolved itself with scrapping of Article 370. But Constituent Assembly dissolved itself in 1957 without scrapping of Article 370 and it had been a permanent feature of the Indian Constitution.

This article along with Article 35A, provided that the Jammu and Kashmir state’s natives would live under a separate sets of laws like citizenship, (Dual Citizenship as Indian and Kashmiri) ownership of property and fundamental rights. As result of this provision, Indian Citizens from other states could not purchase land or property in Jammu and Kashmir.

DOGRA AGITATION

In 1949, an agitation took place in Jammu and Kashmir. This agitation was done by Hindu Community. Jammu Praja Parishad started a movement against Jammu and Kashmir Authority for neglecting other community’s interest in the state. President of Jammu Praja Parishad Mr. Prem Nath Dogra led this movement. Administration of Jammu and Kashmir along with Central Government supressed this movement and arrested Prem Nath Dogra and his followers. After arresting Prem Nath Dogra, Mr. Sheikh Abdullah started Land Reforms. It was called that this reform “Landed Estates Abolition Act” would be very fruitful for the state. Mr. Prem Nath Dogra opposed it. Mr. Dogra said that it was against the Indian Constitution rights for implementing land acquisition without compensation. Jammu Praja Parishad supported with full integrity with rest of other indian states. National Conference Chief Mr. Sheikh Abdullah demanded a complete and separate autonomy for Jammu and Kashmir. In 1952, students connected themselves in this movement. Mr. Jawahar Lal Nehru sent Indian Army to supress this movement only for personal interest of Sheikh Abdullah. 72 hours curfew was imposed and a lot of leaders and students were arrested.

Mr. Jawahar Lal Nehru invited National Conference Chief Mr. Sheikh Abdullah for agreement. It was called “1952 Delhi Agreement”. As per this agreement, Kingship in Jammu and Kashmir had been finished and adopted Sadra – I – Riyasat (like Governer) and Prime Minister designation to Jammu and Kashmir. Jammu Praja Parishad once again opposed designation for Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir (Sadra – I – Riyasat and Prime Minister designation was abolished into State Governor and Chief Minister by Former Prime Minister Mr. Lal Bahadur Shastri after death of Mr. Jawahar Lal Nehru).

SACRIFICE OF JAN SANGH PRESIDENT SHYAMA PRASAD MUKHARJEE & OUTCOME

Jammu Praja Parishad accused Mr. Sheikh Abdullah for favouring Muslim Community. The Jan Sangh, The Hindu Mahasabha and The Ram Rajya Parishad also supported Mr. Prem Nath Dogra and his organization Jammu Praja Parishad. They agitated in Delhi to reverse “1952 Delhi Agreement”. In may 1953, Founder of Jan Sangh (Now BJP) Mr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee made a truce to enter in Jammu and Kashmir but it was prohibited. Whoever wanted to come in Jammu and Kashmir, first permission would be allowed by Jammu and Kashmir Government. Mr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee entered in Jammu and Kashmir citing his rights as an indian citizen to visit any part of country. Mr. Mukharjee was arrested and almost 10000 activists were imprisoned in Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab and Delhi. Many of them were Member of Parliament. Unfortunately Mr. Shyama Prasad Mukharjee was died on 23rd June, 1953. Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir Mr. Sheikh Abdullah became upset and started to give threat to Indian Government that he would merge Jammu and Kashmir into Pakistan. Officially he joined hands with United States of America to conspire with Pakistan against India. The then Prime Minister of India Mr. Jawahar Lal Nehru’s dream for referendum on Jammu and Kashmir had been shattered by his friend Mr. Sheikh Abdullah.

At last, on 8th August, 1953 Mr. Sheikh Abdullah was dismissed as Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir by Sadr – I – Riyasat Mr. Karn Singh (Son of King of Jammu and Kashmir Mr. Hari Singh).  Mr. Sheikh Abdullah was arrested and imprisoned. Mr. Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad was appointed as the new Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir.

FAILURE OF FORMER PRIME MINISTER Mr. JAWAHAR LAL NEHRU

Mr. Jawahar Lal Nehru was totally failure in his Kashmir policy. Merger of all Princely State was done by The Then Home Minister Mr. Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel except Jammu and Kahmir. This Princely State was look after by Mr. Jawahar Lal Nehru. There were three blunders done by Nehru Jee:-

TO GO TO UNITED NATIONS:

Nehru Jee made Jammu and Kashmir as an international issue after ringing bell to United Nations. It was totally bilateral issue. After long time, this stance was changed and not accepted resolution from United Nations.

DESIGNATION OF PRIME MINISTER OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR:

Nehru Jee should have never been designated Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir. It gave a separate state policy for Kashmiri People. Although it was revoked by Former Prime Minister Mr. Lal Bahadur Shastri.

SPECIAL STATUS FOR JAMMU AND KASHMIR:

Nehru Jee provided special status to Jammu and Kashmir with  Article 370 and Article 35A. This step was cut out Jammu and Kashmir from rest of India.

CONCLUSION

Whatever National Conference President Mr. Sheikh Abdullah wanted, Nehru Jee gave all to him. Mr. Nehru did not provide such things like Article 370 & Article 35A, Designation of Prime Minister, etc to People of Jammu and Kashmir, but only for Sheikh Abdullah. It must be found out what reason was. If Sardar Patel would handle Kashmir issue like Princely State Junagarh and Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir would not be a graveyard for Jan Sangh President Mr. Shyama Prasad Mukharjee and other Nationalist Leaders along with Military Personnel’s. Once Sardar Patel suggested Nehru for dwelling people in Jammu and Kashmir who came from Pakistan after partition of India & Pakistan, but Nehru did not agree saying “If it  happens so, Kashmiriyat would be finished.”

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INTRODUCTION

India is achieving an impressive economic growth in recent years, but on the basis of creating employment, it is too far to gain from its economic growth. Every year, a lot of persons are added in Unemployment list. Their purchasing power is not starting. This a main bone of contention for employment. India is producing countless graduates every year, but those graduates don’t find jobs as per their Excellency.

Unemployment is a circumstances where a person is capable of employment and searching jobs but he is unable to find job. People who are not fulfilled their eligibility as per their physical condition and are not interested for doing jobs, are out of such calculation for unemployment.

To count as unemployed, out of work employees must have these three qualities:

They are not working, even part time or temporary.

They are available to work.

They actively looked for work in the past weeks.

Sometimes Underemployed workers have jobs, but they are not working to their full capacity or skilled level. It includes those who works part time but want to work full time. They are not utilizing their time and skill properly.

TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

Natural Unemployment:

It would be available in a healthy economy. The lowest level of unemployment was 2.5 %. Agriculture and Tourism are struck in this unemployment. It offers employment for a certain period in a year. People who engaged such sector, would remain unemployed during the off-season.

Structural Unemployment:

It denotes a situation when structure of economy is changed. Automation in car production has been changed with traditional machines. Traditional machine’s employee either would upgrade, or set themselves in the list of unemployment. Such workers are deficient knowledge about new technology.

Voluntary Unemployment:

It is a situation where workers either not seeking work or are in transition from job to another. This unemployment remains in an economy any time. A lot of people who quit their jobs for searching new one.

Involuntary Unemployment:

It refers to a situation where workers are seeking work and willing to work but unable to find work. It happens in an economy during the time of depression and fall in demand for goods and services.

Cyclical Unemployment:

Such Unemployment is available in the economy when nation’s economy is not doing well. Due to low demand of goods and services, it leads unemployment. Recessions affects most for cyclical unemployment.

Underemployment:

It is a situation under which people with higher level of skills are employed with low level of skills. People fails to utilize their capacity.

MEASURES OF EMPL0YMENT

Employment – Unemployment Survey

The Employment-Unemployment Survey (EUS) is a household survey providing labour force statistics in India. It is carried out over a period of 12 months to count for seasonal variations in employment. The National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) provides three different estimates of employment and unemployment based on different approaches / reference periods used to classify an individual’s activity status. These are:

Usual Status Approach:

It is referred for 365 days preceding the date of the survey. It is recoded only those persons as unemployed who had no gainful work for a major time during the 365 days. It is sought available work for unemployed persons.

Current Weekly Status Approach:

Its period is all seven days in a week preceding the date of survey. In this approach, current activity status is related to the week preceding the date of survey. It is recorded for those persons who have no gainful work even for an hour on any day.

Current Daily Status Approach:

It is referred period for each day preceding date of survey. It is recorded a person who employed even if he works only for an hour on any day of the whole week. It is adopted as a unit of measurement. A person who works for 4 hours or more up to 8 hours on a day, is considered employable.

Payroll Reporting

Since April, 2018 the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) has been bringing out the employment related statistics in the formal sector covering the period September 2017 onwards using payroll reporting. It uses the information on the number of subscribers who have subscribed under three major schemes:-

The Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF)

The Employees’ State Insurance (ESI)

The National Pension Scheme (NPS)

RELATIONSHIP AMONG GDP, INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT

Creation of employment opportunities depends on the volume and composition of economic activity in the economy. The total output of goods and services in the economy (Gross Domestic Product) and its structure. Factors those affect this basic relationship are:

Availability of Capital (Money)

Availability of Skills and expertise among the employed persons

The manner in which Capital and Labour combine to produce the output of goods and services.

CURRENT EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK

India’s total workforce is about 52 crore. Nearly 49% of total workforce is employed with agriculture, but it contributes only 15% of Gross Value Added (GVA). Industry and services spread themselves for 13.7% and 37.5% respectively. It makes 23% GVA for Industry and 62% GVA for services. Micro and Small-sized firms tops in giving employment. It provides employment 92% of all workers.

The current Periodic Labour  Force Survey (PLFS) 2017-18 tells that the unemployment rate (UR) in both rural and urban India is at its highest since 1972 and pegs the countrywide unemployment rate at 6.1%.

REASONS FOR CURRENT UNEMPLOYMENT SCENARIO

Large Population Size

It is one of the most common reason for the unemployment. There is huge difference between high birth rate and low death rate. This gap is scaling new height of population. It always creates pressure on the government.

Slowdown of Economic Growth

GDP growth slows down consecutive 2 years from 8.2% to 6.8%. It hit most because of bad agriculture years, high oil prices, banking sector crisis, unpredictable situation raised by trade war between the U.S. and the China, Brexit. Conflict between Iran and U.S. affects directly to India for exports.

Leapfrogging from Agriculture Sector to Service Sector

Leapfrogging of Indian Economy from agriculture led growth to service sector growth with inadequate acceleration of manufacturing sector. Low investment in manufacturing sector restricted the job market in secondary sector. The growth of technology based sectors is hampering the job ecosystem as new jobs are being created either by replacing the existing ones or by generating new skilled jobs.

Skill Gap and Mismatch

Skill Gap and Mismatch between the available workforce and the demand of industry due to illiteracy and academic qualification. Indian Skills Report 2018 indicated the only 46% of youth coming out of higher educational institutions are employable.

 

GOVERNMENT EFFERTS TO BOOST EMPLOYMENT

The government has put in place a policy ecosystem around several schemes to help generate employment and it includes:

Wage Employment

Government has taken initiative for Wage Employment through Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Gaurantee Scheme, Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme and Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Protsahan Yojana, Digital India etc.

Self- Employment

Government is providing opportunities by providing basic requirement of skill, finances, clearances and favourable ecosystem to start a new business through schemes like Mudra Yojana, Atal Innovation Mission, National Urban Livelihood Mission, Skill India Start-up India and Stand-up India etc.

Development Schemes

Development Schemes like Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, Smart Cities, AMRUT, Hunnar se Rojgar tak etc. are also providing indirect employment.

Labour Market Information System

This System is important for identifying skill shortages, training needs and employment created, has been made functional.

ADVICE TO GOVERNMENT TO INCREASE JOBS

Enhance Skills and Apprenticeships

Government should provide such training programme to enhance skills and apprenticeships. It was ensured the wider use of apprenticeship programmes by all enterprises and link the short-term training programmes with National Apprenticeship Programme to ensure better employability.

Labour Law Reforms

Government should reform Labour Law. It must be simplified and modified labour laws applicable to the formal sector to introduce an optimum combination of flexibility and security. National Policy for Domestic Workers needs to be brought in at the earliest to recognize their rights and promote better working conditions.

Improve Data Collection on Employment

Government needs to conduct an Annual Enterprise Survey using the goods and service tax network (GSTN) as the sample frame. EPFO, ESIC and NPS schemes must be tracked regularly the state of employment while adjusting for the formalization of the workforce.

Ease of Doing Business

 Government is trying its best to improve its track on easing of doing Business. Dispute among labour and its working institutions must be clear quickly. Cost must be economical and fair trial. Government should provide Short – Term Tax Concessions and ease GST rules to support employment-generating sectors as well.

Structural Reforms

Government must create well-paid, formal-sector jobs in labour-intensive manufacturing sectors such as food processing, leather and footwear, textiles and apparel, gems and jewellery, etc. by providing Special packages, individually designed for each industry. Government can start to provide a boost to Skilled Services like Hospitality, Travel and Tourism, Financial Services, Information Technology especially Big Data Analysis, Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Cloud Computing, etc.

Boost Exports

Government should make its best effort to export. High Productivity Exporting Firms provide high wages employment. Therefore, there is a need for a boost focused strategy for creating an environment in which export competitive firms can do well and emerge themselves in labour intensive sectors.

CONCLUSION

It must important at this time to formulate a large comprehensive policy to revive India’s growth momentum to tide over the economic slowdown and can be created full employment opportunities in this New India.

 

 

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INTRODUCTION

In Solar System, there are many planets rounding the Sun. Planets have also their Natural Satellites who round its planets. The Earth has also Natural Satellite, that is called Moon (CHANDRAMA). It is a permanent natural satellite. It is fifth largest satellite in the Solar System. It is considered that The Moon was formed almost 4.50 billion years ago. It formed due to collision between the Earth and The Theia (A large body like The Mars). The Moon’s average orbital distance is 384,402 km. This is about thirty times the diameter of the Earth. It orbits the Earth once every 27.322 days. It also rotates on its axis and takes almost 27 days.

The orbit and the rotation are not perfectly matched. The moon travels around the Earth in an Elliptical Orbit, a slightly stretched – out circle. When the moon is closest to the Earth, its rotation is slower than its journey through space. It is 80C additional in Eastern Side. When it is farthest from the Earth, the rotation is faster, so additional 80C are visible on the western side.

ASTROLOGICAL SIDE WITH THE MOON

The Moon is considered Queen of the Solar System. As per Vedic System, The Moon is a natural benefit and is capable of giving great mental power and prosperity. Prosperity in life is directly linked with the combined positions of the Moon with the Jupiter or other beneficial planets in a horoscope. The Jupiter adds prosperity and wealth with the Moon. The Moon is considered tender by nature and represents love and beauty.

The Moon has direct effect on Females. The Menstrual Periods are governed by the movement and difference phases of the Moon. Water is element of the Moon. Gravitational force of the Moon and sun causes tides in the Oceans. The Moon has no light of its own. It  reflects the sun light on the Earth.

HUMANS ON THE MOON

SOVIET UNION

After Second World War, Cold war took place between Soviet Union and United States of America. Both nations wanted Moon Mission for building Military Camp at the Moon. It accelerated rivalry to them. Firstly in 1958, Soviet Union sent its Space Craft “LUNA 1” to the Moon. But it failed and could not be able to land on the Moon. After that Soviet Union once again prepared “LUNA – 2” for landing on the Moon. But it only landed there. No photographs came. Soviet Union made third attempt with “LUNA – 3” and it was very successful. Photographs came in 1959.

First Space Craft “LUNA – 9” was able for soft landing. “LUNA – 10” was first Space Craft which orbited the Moon in 1966. “LUNA – 16” brought some samples of Rock and Soils in 1970. In this way, Russia sent 24 LUNA Space Craft on the Moon. These all Space and Moon Journey were unmanned.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

During Cold War in 1950, United States Army planned to make a manned military station on the Moon. This was called “PROJECT HORIZON”. It was planned to test Lunar Based Nuclear Test. In 1961, American President Mr. John F Kennedy made a promise for manned mission at end of decade. Under leadership of NASA (THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION), Preparation had been started with multiple unmanned mission on the Moon. United States of America made “APOLLO” Space Craft for manned mission on the Moon. A series of testing had been done with “APOLLO” Space Craft on the Earth.

NASA trained three persons (Neil Armstrong, Advin Aldrin and Collins) for the Moon’s First Manned Mission. “APOLLO – 11” was designed with sophisticated technology. This manned Space Craft was divided into three parts. First part was with Mr. Collins who only orbited the Moon and did not go on the Moon. Second was by which Mr. Armstrong and Mr. Aldrin went on the Moon. Third was by which they returned from the Moon. All three parts were inter-connected and separated easily.

Finally “APOLLO – 11” was launched from Kennedy Space Centre in 1969. Mr. Neil Armstrong became first person to feet on the Moon. After 20 minutes, Mr. Advin Aldrin joined him. They both collected 21 Kg. sample of Rocks and Soils and kept in space craft. They travelled at least one kilo meter on the Moon. In this period, Mr. Collins was orbiting around the Moon. Both historical persons on the Moon talked to American President Mr. Richard Nixon on Phone. All this journey was telecast Live on Television. At least 60 Lakhs people of World watched it Live and became witness of this glorious journey for the Moon.

In 1994, United States of America sent an unmanned space craft “CLEMENTINE” to Lunar Orbit. It brought first global topographic map of the Moon and multispectral images of the Moon’s surface. United States of America once again planned an unmanned mission for the Moon. In 1998, it conducted “MISSION PROSPECTOR”. After completion this mission, it was found bulk quantity of Hydrogen Gas at Moon’s Poles. It indicated that the Moon might have water.

United States of America launched LRO (LUNAR RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER) and LCROSS in 2009. LCROSS completed its work by the end of 2009. Although LRO is now working position and taking high –resolution imaginary. NASA always releases its imaginary photographs. NASA sent two more unmanned space craft for orbiting the Moon in 2012 and are capturing data of Moon’s Internal Structure.

In 2004, Former U.S. President Mr. George W. Bush called for a manned mission on the Moon by 2019 and indicated a construction a base on the Moon by 2024. It could not completed by now.

JAPAN

After that, Many Nations planned Operation Moon. Some had succeeded and some did not find place. Japan also became third country to place its Space Craft “HITEN” in the Moon’s orbit in 1990. This space Craft was unmanned and sent a few things for Research and Development Studies for the Moon. Its Transmitter had failed.

Japan planned another Moon Mission in 2007. The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency’s “KAGUYA” (SELENE) fitted with a high definition video Camera and two small radio – transmitter satellites. It got Lunar Geo-Physics data and first high – definition movies from beyond Earth Orbit.

EUROPEAN UNION

European Nations made an organization to counter India, United States of America and China for their presence in International Politics. This organization also scaled the Moon Mission. That is called “EUROPEAN UNION”. European Union’s first Space Craft “SMART – 1” was sent on Lunar Orbit in 2004. It was activated by 2006. It sent chemical elements of Lunar Surface.  

CHINA

China also emerged itself in the race of Moon in 2007. Chinese Space Craft “CHANG’E 1” successfully set up itself in Moon Orbit and kept on sending images and chemical analysis by 2009. After that, China planned for “CHANG’E 2” in 2010. It was not a mission for Moon Orbit, but China Space Unmanned Craft reached at Moon Surface. China made long jump in a very little time in Space and Moon Projects. It continued by 2012. China could not stop itself and they launched “CHANG’E 3” in 2013. “CHANG’E 3” landed on moon with soft landing system. China kept a rover in its space craft so that it could map distance of having rover and send multiple images and chemical elements at different place. Its Rover’s name was “YUTU”. China now is planning for “CHANG’E 4” by 2020.

COMMERCIAL MISSIONS

In 2007, Google also expressed its interest in the Moon and encouraged commercial endeavours to the Moon with the help of X Prize Foundation. But it has been by now not completed. It has been clear that private big players are taking huge interest for the Moon. In August 2016, the United States of America’s Government gave permission to a start-up Moon Express to land on the Moon. This marked the first ever that private firm was given such permission to explore on the Moon.

In 28th February 2018, SpaceX, Vodafone, Nokia and Audi planned a pact to install a 4G Wireless Communication network on the Moon for streaming live footage on the surface to the Earth.

INDIA

By the time, India also emerged itself for Moon Mission. ISRO (Indian space and Research Organization) planned to send its Space Craft “CHANDRAYAAN – 1) in 2008. “CHANDRAYAAN – 1 brought more evidences by which it can be believed that water is available on the Moon. “CHANDRAYAAN – 1 discovered LUNAR ICE there. It was first and most successful mission for ISRO as per interest of India. ISRO planned “CHANDRAYAAN 2” to launch in 2013. India took Russia’s help for Rover but Russia failed to deliver a rover to India, so this mission had been late. India made its own Rover named “PRAGYAAN” on the name of Mr. Vikram Sarabhai, Father of Indian Space Program.

INDIAN MISSION: CHANDRAYAAN – 2

CHANDRAYAAN -2 is an Indian Mission that will go to the Moon’s south pole, Dark side of Moon. It has been launched on 22nd July 2019 from SATISH DHAWAN SPACE CENTER at SRIHARIKOTA in Andhra Pradesh. It was earlier scheduled to be launched on 15th July but had been postponed due to a technical glitch. CHANDRAYAAN – 2 will continue for its purpose by a year.

CHANDRAYAAN – 2 would collect information of elemental composition of the Moon and Water Ice confirmation. It has an orbiter high resolution camera for topography mapping. It will explore water on south pole of the Moon where light of the Sun cannot reach. This area always covers with darkness. There may be existence of water ice because light never comes there. The Moon’s temperature is very high and low. Its day temperature is +1300C and night is -1800C.

CHANDRAYAAN – 2 will try for soft landing on the Moon with the help of its VIKRAM Module on 6th September 2019 and A Rover named PRAGYAAN on the Moon to signal out many experiments. Rover PRAGYAAN will cover 500 meter distance and collect data from those spots. Total 38 soft landing attempts are made by now, but more than half has been failed.

WHY THE MOON??

There is a question why at present so many countries and big fat companies are very interested to explore the Moon. During cold war, United States of America and Soviet Union were locked horn to establish military hub. It could not be fulfilled by both countries.

At this time, suddenly such study is going up and higher. India, China, European Union, Japan, Israel, etc. are doing passionately to the Moon. Private players like Vodafone, Amazon, Google, etc. are investing bulk money on the Moon Mission. There are two strong reasons:-

WATER - ICE

When India launched CHANDRAYAAN – 1 in 2008. It was very successful mission for India and World both because it discovered Water Ice on the Moon. Planning of establish military post or dwelling colony would be very easy if water is available on the Moon. If water is present there, Life would be existed. Private Companies are planning tour on the Moon because water ice was found.

HELIUM – 3

Helium – 3 is found on large level on the Moon. It is a source of immense energy in Nuclear Reactors. It would be very beneficial for Nuclear owned Nations. All nations which take interest on the Moon are have Nuclear power. This gas is very costly. Private Companies are also cheerful about Helium – 3.

CONCLUSION

In this way, Humans have planned to destroy natural habitat scheme. On the Earth, Industries have swollen purity of air and water. Now the Moon is set to become a soft prey of human being’s greediness. The Moon is natural and also very favourable material for earth life.

GREAT NATURALIST DARWIN said,” BACK TOWARDS NATURE,”

Human Beings must follow such statement. If Encroachment would be done by Natural Forces, what will happen in near future? When Nature would start destruction, no technology will stop. Earthquakes, Floods, Landslides, Volcano, etc. do what they want. Nobody can stop them. Research and Studying on the Moon is a good step, but to try to use natural satellite for energy, is a destructive idea. 

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INTRODUCTION

A lot of sports are played throughout the World. In 776, Athens organized the First Old Olympic Sports Events. After all, In Modern World, Olympic once again started in 1896. Many Sports become the witness and perform against one another.

Cricket began in England. At starting, it was played between only two countries- England and Australia. England is the father of Cricket. At that time, Cricket was spread among Commonwealth Nations (Countries which are the colony of the British Empire). But due to time-consuming and lack of technical learning of cricket, it was not advertised as per other games like Football, Hockey, Tennis, etc. It was played a few countries like England, Australia, West Indies, etc.

After Independent of India, India became a regular cricketing country. Support from the Central Government of India, It made itself the main sport in India. Although It is time-consuming Sport. Most of the Developed Countries did not focus on Cricket because it made Public dull.

About 1960, England started to play shortened Cricket. That is called One Day Cricket. First of all, In 1962, A Knock out cricket tournament is played in England. That name is Midlands Knock – out Cup. After a year, Gillette Cup was played among all cricket playing countries. First One Day International was played between England and Australia due to rain. All 4 days were washed out. On the fifth day, One Day International was played to entertain Public. It was very successful.

Cricket is now played three forms of Cricket. First one is Test Cricket. It takes 5 days. The second was One Day. It is played all day from Morning to Evening. It takes at least 8 hours. Before 1983, it was played 60 Overs for each team, but it is now 50 overs. The third is Twenty-twenty. It is played 20 overs for each team. Cricket World Cup for One Day Game was started in 1975.

FIRST THREE WORLD CUP WAS PLAYED IN ENGLAND FROM 1975 TO 1983

Due to the shortage of resources for playing cricket, England became the host of starting three world cups. It was called PRUDENTIAL CUP as per Sponsorship. In 1975, total eight reams participated in which six nations (England, Australia, New Zealand, West Indies, India, and Pakistan) played Test Cricket and rest of teams (Sri Lanka and East Africa) were included without test cricket.

In this world, the dominance of power was among Australia, West Indies, and England. Final Match was played between West Indies and Australia. West Indies defeated Australia by 17 runs. West Indies Captain Mr. Clive Lloyd played magnificent inning with 102 run and became the first captain to win world cup along with Man of the Match Award.

Second World Cup was also played in England. In 1979, West Indies once again proved that there was nobody near them. In this World Cup, Non-Test Playing Teams had to qualify to play in the World Cup. Sri Lanka and Canada qualified. Under Skipper Mr. Clive Lloyd, West Indies won second consecutive time World Cup after beating Host England by 92 runs. Sir Viv Richards played lightning 138 runs innings against England and became Man of the Match.

Third World Cup was won by India after defeating defending West Indies by 43 runs. In this World, Mr. Kapil Dev led Team India. He was appointed newly captain. He performed very exceptionally as All Rounder. He led Team from the front. In Quarter Match against Zimbabwe, he scored 175 runs and reached Team India in Semifinal. In Final, India was all out for 183 runs, but Bowlers fetched trophy to India. Madan Lal became Man of the Match.

DIFFERENT WORLD CHAMPIONS FROM 1987 TO 1996

First time in Cricket World Cup, One Day Cricket has become from 60 overs to 50 overs. India and Pakistan were hosting in 1987. In this World Cup, India was defending champion but England in Semi-Final ousted India and played Final against Australia. In Final, Australia won against England by 7 runs. Final was played at Eden Garden in Kolkata. Australia scored 253 runs for the loss of 5 wickets. England was restricted by Australian bowlers by 246 runs in 8 wickets. David Boon guided Australian Team by 75 runs inning and became Man of the Match under the leadership of Alan Border.

Fifth Cricket World Cup was played in Australia and New Zealand. South Africa participated after banned by Sports Agency. It played very good cricket but luck could not take place on its side. In this world cup, Pakistan won World cup after defeating England in Final by 22 runs. All-rounder Imran Khan was skipper of Pakistan cricket team. Wasim Akram took 3 wickets and scored 33 runs in final. He became Man of The Match. Pakistan made 246 runs but England could stable itself and bowl out on 227 runs.

Once again Cricket World Cup was hosted by the Indian Continent. Sri Lanka was also included in hosting rights. In this world, Sri Lankan Skipper Arjun Ranatunga planned very exceptional cricket. He used Sanath Jayasuriya to take more run power play. In power play, only four players can field out of 22 Gaj. Sanath Jayasuriya demonstrated his skills to play in No-man's land Area. India was defeated by Sri Lanka in Semi-Final. India was on 120 runs for 8 wickets, Public made hoax at Eden Garden in Kolkata. Sri Lanka made 251 runs. By default Sri Lanka entered in Final because Indian Cricket Fans did not allow to resume playing.

In final, Australia and Sri Lanka were facing off. Australia scored 241 runs and Sri Lanka easily made it after losing 3 wickets. Arvind De Silva scored a fine century and awarded Man of the Match Award.

AUSTRALIAN DOMINANCE ON WORLD CRICKET FROM 1999 TO 2007

Seventh Cricket World Cup was played in England along with Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. It is starting of Australian Era for Cricketing Success. Steve Waugh was the skipper of Australian Cricket Team. Australia performed very good cricket. In Semi-Final, South Africa was the opponent of Australia. This match was ended tie. It can be won by South Africa if Alan Donald would be careful during running between the wickets. All Rounder Lans Clusener left no stone unturned but at last ball of the match, it got a tie. Due to win in Group Stage on South Africa, Australia reached in Final. Pakistan was in final against Australia. Australian Bowlers bundled out Pakistan for 132 runs. It was achieved by less than 20 Overs and 8 Wickets Victory was awarded to Australia. It was his second World Cup Title. Legendary Spinner Shane Warne took 4 wickets in Final and chose Man of the Match Award. India’s performance was not good enough to include the top 4 teams. Although Sachin and Saurav played very good cricket as per batting point of view. Mohammad Azharuddin was Indian Skipper.

South Africa first time hosted Cricket World Cup in 2003. It was said that South Africa would do very well. It was not the correct prediction from Cricket Pundits. South Africa disappointed. In this world, Australia dominated higher degree than the 1999 Cricket World Cup. Leader of the Australian Team had been changed. Baton of success was processed from Steve Waugh to Ricky Ponting. Australia won this World Cup without losing a match. In Final, India faced Australia and was trampled badly by 125 runs. Skipper Ricky Ponting scored 140 runs and became Man of the Match. India scattered pressure of chasing 360 runs target.

Ninth Cricket World Cup was hosted by West Indies first time. That World Cup had also seen the dominance of Australia. Mathew Hayden performed very well. Australia won this World Cup without losing a single Match. Sri Lanka reached in Final but Wicket Keeper Batsman Adam Gilchrist blew away Sri Lankan Bowling Attack. Lasith Malinga was considered to be a game-changer, but he failed to fill expectations. Australia won this Final by 53 runs by Duckworth - Luis Rule. Australia became consecutive hat trick winner of Cricket World Cup. India was ousted by Bangladesh at the group stage. Rick Ponting became the second skipper after Clive Lloyd to win two Cricket World Cup.

HOST IS BECOMING WORLD CHAMPION FROM 2011 TO BY NOW.

2011 Cricket World Cup was hosted by India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. Wicket-Keeper Batsman MS Dhoni was leading Team India. In the history of Cricket World Cup, Host could not win the World Cup. But this time India won this World after defeating Sri Lanka by 6 Wickets. India won Cricket World Cup after 28 years. It was not an easy task. India ousted Defending Champion Australia in Quarter Final, then clashed with Pakistan in Semi-Final. India restricted Sri Lanka for 274 runs. But when Indian Batting Started, both opener Sachin and Sehwag were returned to the pavilion by Lasith Malinga. After that Gambhir and Kohli rotated their strikes. Dilshan caught Kohli on his own ball. Then Indian Skipper MS Dhoni entered the ground. He batted all-rounder shots and became Man of the Match. India won with huge a six from Dhoni.

2015 Cricket World Cup was played in Australia and New Zealand. Defending Champion India was determined to win this world cup. Australia outplayed India in Semi Final by fantastic century from Steven Smith. Michael Clarke was leading Australian Team. In Final, Australia found New Zealand. New Zealand played very good cricket under the leadership of Brandon MacCallum. In Semi-Final, New Zealand ousted South Africa in a thrilling Match. Australia defeated New Zealand easily in Final. Australian All-Rounder James Faulkner became Man of the Match. Australia won fifth-time Cricket World Cup Title.

Twelfth Cricket World Cup was hosted by England and Wales. England and India were favorites to win this world cup. England’s Skipper Eoin Morgan stood an aggressive team with the help of Andrew Strauss. Andres Strauss was batsman of England Team and also led the team for Ashes Victory. He became Director of England Cricket Board. Top four team was India, Australia, England, and New Zealand. India and New Zealand clashed in which Black Caps ousted Men in Blue in a thrilling match. Another side, Defending Champion Australia took on Host England. Host England hammered veiled attack on Australia in every department of the game. Host England and Second Consecutive Time reaching the world cup final New Zealand.

This match was the greatest thrilling match in the final. The match was a tie. Then Super over was played, it was also tied. At last, due to counting boundary, England became the first time world champion. England All-Rounder Ben Stokes was awarded Man of the Match due to his heroics performance. England is the father of Cricket, but it was not able to win the world cup title.

CONCLUSION

Cricket is played in a few countries. It is a game of civilized people. It is a time-consuming game. It is not suited for working people. This is also a reason that it could not spread all over the world. Five World Cup title was won by Australia. 2 world Cup for West Indies and India each. Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and England kept one each.

 

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INTRODUCTION

G20 Summit, 2019 was held at OSAKA in Japan, one of leading Industrial Hub. Leaders of all Nineteen Countries and the European Union’s Representative gathered all together to discuss many economic and trading issues. Actually, G20 has both kinds of Nations. It is included Developed Nations and Developing Nations. It is not an organization like G7 where only Developed Countries are invited for their own National Interest. G20 Organization is like A GRAM PANCHAYAT where all the Rich and the Poor sit altogether and sort out problems of Village.

It is founded in 1999 to discuss Financial Issues at International Level. Summit is held once in a year. In 2008, it was expanded with Finance Ministers and Foreign Ministers of Organization’s Members. It is seen collectively that 90% of Grass World Product, 80% of World Trade, two-third of World Population and almost half land of World Living Land were covered by G20 Nations. This Organization does not blame any country, but find out Permanent Solution. All Supremo Leaders of their own countries put their financial issues and all Leaders and Guest Invitees International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization’s Officials carry on Solution.

DIFFERENTIAL INTEREST BETWEEN DEVELOPED NATIONS AND DEVELOPING NATIONS

It is a burning question for World Leaders how to patch – up between Developed Nations and Developing Nations. Governments of Developed Nations have a problem to create Market for its production. These Nations have done its progress as Economical Power. They don’t have problems like Developing Nations. Economic Infrastructure developed at large scale. Its Firms give jobs to Citizen of Country. Requirements of its Public have been fulfilled. These Nations keep per Capita Income at a high rate, its production must be sold various other places where such requirements occur. Developed Nations have no market to sell its produced Materials. All Developed Nations are searching the market to dump its production. These countries are filled with Metro Services, Road Structure, Dams, Electricity, Irrigation, etc. all fundamental requirements. Developed Nations give Export Subsidy to its farmers by which Agricultural Goods come to International Markets. Farmers earn more and more money from Agriculture. These Countries are not only strengthening their farming but also improving day by day salaried persons. These Nations encouraged to give the full base for Entrepreneurships through various schemes.

On the other hand, Developing Countries are struggling to fill the Basic Requirements of its Citizens. These people need Economic Infrastructure like Roads, Dams, Electricity, Bridges, A Positive Environment, etc. Farmers produce Agricultural Goods, but don’t find a reasonable rate for it. These Countries have no Cold Storage to keep it. Farmers have been arrested due to such Unconditional Environments. Salaried Persons of Such Nations are very worried because Unemployment Rates are increasing day by day. These Nations have no resource to make their citizens as Entrepreneurs. These Countries are dependent on the help of Developed Nations. Developed Nations give help to Developing Countries because of exporting its goods in these countries. Developing Nations are unable to provide Basic Requirements for its Citizens.

These are much difference between Developed Nations and Developing Nations. Nobody knows on where, on what, on which point, on how these two different groups of Nations will support each other. A group wants to sell its Production and second are unable to earn its livelihood. At this stage, How a Poor Country enjoy Apple I Phones when Farmers commit suicide on a daily basis. It has been total anarchy to settle down two different worlds.

WORLD SCENARIO

At this time, World Politics is going through a very delicate time. Pacts and Treaties are being re-examined those have been finalized by the previous government. The decision of Former Governments is being changed at large. Every Nation either Developed or Developing takes only its own National Interest. There is nobody who could care about Under-Developed Countries. These Nations have struck badly in Poverty Circle. These Countries are being led by a group of Self Interest People. They don’t have responsibility and accountability. Some Such Countries have enough Natural Resource, but due to the lack of money, it cannot be explored.

A dispute between China and Japan in the South China Sea’s islands create an open gate for disturbance in Eastern International Politics. Both countries have not reached a consensus point. North Korea with moral support from China carries World in the depth trouble. The United States of America tries its best to interrupt the North Korea Nuclear Program. North Korea threatens continuously to Japan.

Donald Trump Administration de-legalized Nuclear Pact with Iran. This was the pact done Barak Obama Administration in 2015. President Donald Trump wants New Nuclear Pact in which the United States of America could get financial benefits. Tension with Mexico for building a wall on the border is accelerating. Refugees are dying on the way to American Dreams.

India and Pakistan remain on top spot with its Kashmir business issues. Kashmir issue has been business for Kashmiri and Pakistan. China also supports Pakistan for CPEC (China – Pakistan Economic Corridor). It is a part of Border – Road Initiatives.

Every Country sets tariff on imported goods to sell DESI Goods in the Country. At this time, the Balance of Trade is going Negative Value. Difference between India and China is very high on the basis of Import and Export Goods from both Countries. China exports a large scale to India as per Chinese Goods Demand. India cannot export its goods to china because of Low Demand of Indian Goods in China.

CONCLUSION

According to the Asian Development Bank, India and China can play a very important role in G20. Differences between these Nations occur the huge setback each other. At Present, Both Countries have the largest human resource. Developing Human Resource’s rate is also very high. The Lifestyle of both countries is changing day by day. G20 is for Financial Focus Group along with Inclusive Growth. It must be re-considered to Leaders of both countries.

Other nations like Japan, Singapore, Saudi Arab, etc. have its National Interest. Almost all countries in G20 are watching only own National Interest. The United States of America also raises concern on tariff for a bike with India. Such Group can survive after becoming a large-hearted nation.

There are no countries now which think about Under-Developed Nations. Developed Nations are searching Markets in Developing Countries to sell its Products. Developing Countries save them from increasing tariff on Imported Goods. This fight between Developed Nations and Developing Nations would be continued as per National Interest. The world needs to help and co-operate Under-Developed Countries so that Number of Developing Countries could increase.

 

Members of the G20 Organization must be increased with Under – Developed Countries. Financial and Trading Groups can do well for the World when Representatives of All Section would be available for negotiations.

 

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INTRODUCTION

In 1975, Indira Gandhi Government imposed National Emergency as per Article 352 due to the intense pressure of his younger son Mr. Sanjay Gandhi. It was said that Mr. Sanjay Gandhi without any portfolio was the most powerful person in the Indian Government. Mrs. Indira Gandhi never interrupted his interference in her Government. She had also desire after her, Mr. Sanjay Gandhi would lead the Congress Party and the Indian Government. She has been a Stooge in the Government. Every Decision was taken by Mr. Sanjay Gandhi.

BACKGROUND OF EMERGENCY

In 1967, the Golaknath Case was carried out by the Supreme Court of India. In this case, the Supreme Court verdict was not to be amended in Fundamental Rights in Parliament. But Mrs. Indira Gandhi was Prime Minister of India. She amended 24th Constitutional Amendments in 1971. After that Congress Government was lost its case of Privy Purse Case in Supreme Court. Privy Purse means that all the king who merged their Princely states in India, took hefty pensions and facilities from the Indian Government. Mrs. Indira Gandhi did not want to continue such a scheme to them. Congress Government made once again 26th Constitutional Amendments. It was a direct conflict between Mrs. Indira Gandhi and the Supreme Court. In 1971, Mrs. Indira Gandhi defeated all veteran leaders who were against her and took clear majority with her Election Slogan (GHARIBI HATAO) in Lok Sabha. After some time, Keswanand Bharti Case Verdict trembled to Mrs. Indira Gandhi. Supreme Court nullified 24th Constitutional Amendments and gave the verdict that nobody could change the Basic Structure of Constitution. Mr. Raj Narain who fought Lok Sabha Election from Rae Bareilly against Mrs. Indira Gandhi in 1971, filed a case in Allahabad  High Court for misusing Government Machinery in Rae Bareilly to win the Election. Its Verdict had come in 1975 and Allahabad High Court declared her election null and void. During this phase, some student movements were also against the Central Government. Bihar and Gujarat were leaders for such activities under Mr. Jay Prakash Narayan. Central Government arrested Mr. Jay Prakash Narayan and put him in the dock. All Popular and Dominated Leaders were imprisoned into the jail. Such Movements had been trampled by Congress Government. Immediate Reason for Emergency was Mr. Raj Narain Case in which Allahabad High Court nullified Mrs. Indira Gandhi’s Election from Rae Bareilly.

DURING EMERGENCY PERIOD

On 25th June of 1975, Article 352 (Emergency) was imposed before several minutes of midnight citing Internal Conspiracy along with External links in India. Freedom of News Papers and Magazines had been destroyed. All Opposition Leaders like Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee,  Mr. Lal Krishna Advani, Mr. Moraraji Desai, George Fernandez, etc. were arrested and kept them behind the bar. Nobody could write against the Congress Government. All Jails were filled with Political Leaders. There was no ray of hope they would be free or not. Mr. Sanjay Gandhi was a prime member to do so. He started to justify Emergency in his Speeches. He influenced Film Industry too much in Congress Favour. He made Film Producers, Directors, Actors, and Actress favored Emergency. Once, Singer, Mr. Kishor Kumar denied singing in a Youth Program of Congress Party. His songs were banned on ALL INDIA RADIO.

Mr. Sanjay is called “DARK PRINCE OF EMERGENCY”.

Mr. Sanjay Gandhi scripted 5 programs during Emergency.

  • First was to do Family Planning for Population Control,
  • The second was to plant Trees for Environment Plantation,
  • The third was to increase Literacy Rate,
  • The fourth was to eradicate Casteism,
  • The fifth was to abolish of Dowry.

These all programs were genuine to work for Welfare of India. But Burning Question is why he chose it during Emergency. Such Programs were being done On Target Based Level.

END OF EMERGENCY

After a few months of Emergency in India, Bangladeshi President Mr. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was assassinated in his Presidential House along with his whole family members on 15th August 1975. His two daughters Sheikh Hasina (She is now Prime Minister of Bangladesh) and Sheikh Rehana escaped because they were in West Germany for a trip. Mrs. Indira Gandhi frightened to this act and started to search a common way by which She would remain Prime Minister of India and keep safe herself and her family.  Whenever Mrs. Indira Gandhi went to Foreign Trip, she was asked others Head of Countries why Emergency had been imposed and her respect also fell down in International Politics. Once she played a key role for Bangladesh’s Freedom in 1971. Now she imposed Emergency in her own state and finished all Fundamental Rights for Citizens of India. She made cheers for Muslims to emerge “SECULARISM” in the Preamble of Indian Constitution in 42nd Constitutional Amendments. Muslims were very fumed and annoyed with the Family Planning Program. Finally, She had taken the decision for General Election in India. On 21st March 1977 Emergency was lifted and Darkest Chapter of Indian Democracy ended. Congress Party was defeated by Janata Party Alliance. Mr. Raj Narain at this time defeated Mrs. Indira Gandhi. Mr. Sanjay Gandhi fought Election first time, also defeated from Amethi. Mr. Moraraji Desai became Prime Minister of India.

CONCLUSION

In this way, Indian Voters franchise their vote to end Emergency. When she divided Pakistan into two Countries, then threat on India from Western and Eastern Border had been looped after partitioned Pakistan and Bangladesh into Two Countries in 1971, Mrs. Indira Gandhi was not only liked of his party member, but also opposition. Within 4 years, she had become the biggest enemy of Indian Democracy, Indian People, Indian Mandate and Indian Constitution. She never controlled Mr. Sanjay Gandhi for his un-ruling interference. Some Central Ministers also denied to Mr. Sanjay Gandhi’s Orders. They were removed out from Ministries by Mrs. Indira Gandhi.

Mr. Sanjay Gandhi’s Five Program was very favorable for Indians. Due to the working style and execution, it went totally wrong. It was said that Mr. Sanjay Gandhi’s secret men were in every village. All these things have been failed in the 1977 General Election. Both Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Mr. Sanjay Gandhi were in full confidence that Congress would win the 1977 General Election. Mr. Sanjay Gandhi was in doubt but due to Mrs. Indira Gandhi, his doubts were ignored. Congress Party won 352 Lok Sabha Seats out of 518. Congress Party was routed out from Total North India including Rae Bareilly and Amethi Seats. Both mother and son lost their bastion. Congress Party won only 153 Lok Sabha Seats in the 1977 General Election.

 

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After swearing-in Ceremony of Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi in 2014, Everybody was hoping that Pakistan can improve itself and cut down Terrorism Tree in its country because a Strong Leader was born in Democratic India as best wishes of Indian People. SAARC Countries were invited. All Members were present including Pakistan Prime Minister Mr. Nawaj Sharif. There was a positive atmosphere for both enemy countries. In 1999, When Former Prime Minister Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee took a trip to Pakistan via Bus. At that time, Nawaz Sharif was Prime Minister of Pakistan. Kargil war erupted after the bus trip to Pakistan. Pakistan Authority stabbed India back. Indian Army fought hard to evacuate Occupied area that had been captured by Pakistan Army. In 2014, It might be repeated if Indian Intelligence and Army did not pay attention. Conspiracy against India was weaving in Pakistan. Pathankot Attack, Uri Attack, etc. have executed well to destabilize India. At this time, India gave a befitting reply to Pakistan. Indian Army did Surgical Strike on Launch Pads near LOC and Air Strike on Balakot (Mother place of Terrorism) after Uri Attack and Pulwama Attack in 2016 and 2019.

First of all, India gave free hand to the Army in Kashmir. Indian Army started encounter of Terrorists as per the report of Intelligence Bureau. People who support Pakistan began to pelt stones on Army. Indian Army took stern actions that were involved with such anti-India activities. Due to such an action on Terrorism in Kashmir, Vote Bank Politics liked Politicians cried foul and told that Human Rights is endangered in Valley. Pakistan also raised concern that the Indian Army is crushing Human Rights in Kashmir. Separists Leaders like Geelani, Mir Wiaz Umar Farukh, Yasin Malik, etc. were arrested in their houses. These Separatist leaders' Children are studying in Foreign Universities and Kashmiri Youth pelted stones as per the guide line of such Separatist. These separatists were taking benefits from Indian Government like visiting, Medical, Security, stc. But worked against India. They made Kashmir’s New Generation STONE PELTER.  Indian Government did not pay attention to such Human Rights Conversation. Now Terrorists are being killed but stone pelting has been finished.

It had been more than 65 years, Kashmir Resolution was not sorted out because it has been an industry. It is a medium of Employment in Kashmir. Indian Government was sleeping which could not see reality in Kashmir. India’s First Home Minister Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel asked India’s First Prime Minister Mr. Jawahar Lal Nehru to dwell Sikhs in Kashmir. But Nehru Jee did not do so. If Sikhs who were coming from Pakistan during partition, would have been dwelled in Kashmir, Population of Sikhs would be more Muslim in the valley. No Referendum demand was made by Separatists and Pakistan Authority. No Article 370 would take place there. It would be fully part of India like other states. Nehru Jee committed blunder at that place as a Prime Minister of India.

Now India mulls to end Article 370 from the Valley. At this time, the NDA Government wins more seats than in 2014. A hardliner became Home Minister. Kashmir has changed itself from 2014 to 2019. Kashmir is ready changed forever.

 

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Now a day, India and China have been the backbone of the World Economy. Both are working as Engine. India and China have the largest human resource. Through this source, both dominate across the world. Both countries have made some key organizations like BRICS (BRAZIL, RUSSIA, INDIA, CHINA & SOUTH AFRICA) and SCO (SHANGHAI CORPORATION ORGANIZATION) altogether. Both are coming out from developing to developed. India and China both got freedom in 1947 and 1949 respectively. India’s relation with China was too strong from ancient times. But it is suffering from 1950 when China denied accepting Arunachal and Sikkim as Indian Territories. Chinese Government does not follow MACMOHAN LINE which was made by the British Government. That is the bone of contention between the two countries.

India was the torch bearer for giving recognition to PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA over the REPUBLIC OF CHINA. The Republic of China now exists in TAIWAN. India was the first Non-Communist Country which accepts the People’s Republic of China. In the exchange of such gesture from India, China in 1950 did not accept Mac Mohan Line. It gave a huge setback of Nehru’s Diplomacy towards China. After that, China controlled all area of Tibet. India was thinking that would be a free zone. Thousands of Indians went to KAILASH MANSAROVAR YATRA. It has been totally shut down by China. Dalai Lama has been Fugitive in India. He constructed his Government in Exile. In this way, China took over control on Tibet and did not accept MAC Mohan Line.

Now it has been clear, Relation with the Chinese Government would not be going sweet. Nehru Jee never prepared India for War. He led NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT. That was totally fruitless. Nehru Jee gave the slogan “HINDI CHINI, BHAI BHAI.” It was a total failure when China attacked India in 1962. Indian Army did not have the proper quantity of bullets that befitting reply could be given to China. In this way, China took hundreds of Kilo Meter Indian Territory within 3 days. At that time, Communist Parties were very happy that Communism was spreading in India with the help of the Chinese Army.

 India and China’s Relation was not good by 1977. China had given full support to Pakistan during the 1965 and 1971 War. India in 1971 signed a pact with Russia by which Russia shielded India during 1971 War. Chinese Government told the Indian Government “A STOOGE OF RUSSIA.” In 1977, JANATA PARTY came to Power and eradicated Congress Government. Samajwadi Neta Jay Prakash Narayan played a key role to oust Congress Government. Mr. Moraraji Desai became first Non-Congressi Prime Minister of India. Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee was made Foreign Minister of India.  He went to China for a long time. Due to his Diplomacy, Indian Devotees started their Pilgrimage to Kailash Mansarovar. At Present, A lot of Indian Labourers work in Gulf Countries. It is also due to Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee. After a short time, the Janata Party Government could not survive.

When Mr. Rajeev Gandhi became Prime Minister, he went to China. It was not fruitful like Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s visit. There are some military Confrontations with Chinese Military during patrolling along the Border in 1967 and 1987. But it has been solved after a short period. Now India has been very weak as per Economy. Mr. P V Narsimha Rao had become Prime Minister of India. He was India's Best Prime Minister. Due to his long term vision, he made China Friend only for Economic Activities. Border Issue is a long issue to resolve but India and China could cooperate on SAME INTEREST’S  ISSUES like Employment, Poverty, Education, Investment, etc. Narasimha Rao Government gave free hand to Dr. Man Mohan Singh. It is totally the contribution of P V Narasimha Rao where India now stands. He was the backbone of Indian Economic Progress.

Trade has been started with a leap and frog between India and China. China had better industrial hub so its products piled in India. As result Balance of Trade went in favor of China. Indians use almost everything made by China. Trade Deficit had been more than US62 Billion Dollar by 2017-18. It is an alarming time for India.

Through this Period, Only Economic Development was done by now. Border Issue remains the same. India believes in MACMOHAN LINE but China pressurizes on LINE OF ACTUAL CONTROL. Former Presidents of China Mr. JIANG ZEMIN and HU JINTAO never took interest to solve Border Issue. India Prime Ministers like HD DEVEGOWDA, IK GUJRAL spent very less time in office. Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee lived in Office for 5 Year a time. Vajpayee Government tried its best but the Chinese Authority did not accept MANMOHAN LINE. But Vajpayee Government made China accepted that Sikkim is the full-time part of India in 2003. It was the biggest achievement of India by now as per Border Issue.

In 2004, Dr. Man Mohan Singh was made Prime Minister of India by UPA led Congress Government. Mr. Singh was a STOOGE OF SONIA GANDHI. There was no improvement in Border Issue, only Economic Cooperation and same interest issues are going on. During this period, China and Pakistan came very close. China made CPEC through Pakistan Occupied Kashmir.

In 2014, A Strong Leader was discovered by Indian Mandate. During this time, China started the OBOR Project (ONE BELT, ONE ROAD). India has many problems with OBOR. India is not part of the OBOR Project. It is a total violation of Sovereignty. China made CPEC as per OBOR Projects. India told China that Kashmir is a disputed place between India and Pakistan, then how a road can be made by another country. China offers Loan to Economic Weak Countries to invest in OBOR Project. Such a Situation would be very dangerous when Road and Belt Project completed and China would be the BOSS of All Nations.

Doklam Issue also created in 2017. This place is situated in Bhutan. Actually, it is a triangle surrounded by India, China, and Bhutan. China began road construction in Doklam and India inducted itself to interrupt China. That was a very severe incident. It might take place the WAR between India and China. Both countries along with Bhutan solved this issue very effectively. Status Qua took place at last. In this way, the Relation between India and China is not going well situation. Economic Strengthen is a positive sign.  

 

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After 24 years, Two former chief Minister Mr. Mulayam Singh Yadav and Bahan Mayawati shared dais to save their own Caste Party. They both have no vote bank in Uttar Pradesh. Samajwadi Party always trusts its Equation with MY (MUSLIM + YADAV) and Bahujan Samaj Party banks on SC + ST + SOME MUSLIM VOTES. In 1995, Mulayam and Kanshiram clinched a deal to defeat BJP in Vidhan Sabha Election Uttar Pradesh. Both leaders Mr. Mulayam Singh Yadav and Mr. Kashiram had given a slogan, “MIL GAYE MULAYAM AUR KANSHIRAM, HAWA MEIN UDD GAYE PRABHU SHRI RAM”. BJP was unable to breach such caste equation. Finally, Mr. Mulayam Singh Yadav became Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh with the help of Bahujan Samaj Party. But in dramatic mode, Opportunist Bahan Mayawati had withdrawn her party support and SP Government went down into the dust. After that, Some SP MLAs attacked in Lucknow Guest House where MLAs of Bahujan Samaj Party gathered to discuss next step. They were beaten badly with SP MLAs in the presence of Mayawati.

Now once again Samajwadi Party and Bahujan Samaj Party made an alliance to defeat BJP.  At this time, It is a fight between KAAMDAR and NAAMDAR. People of Uttar Pradesh have seen governance of Samajwadi Party and Bahujan Samaj Party. They both have done nothing for the growth of Uttar Pradesh. They only divide and rule. Due to the caste equation, they played with the feeling of the public.

Now, People of Uttar Pradesh have understood MEAN POLITICS of both parties. That is why they gave a mandate to BJP in 2014 for becoming Mr. Narendra Modi as Prime minister of India. Bhartiya Janata Party clinched 73 Lok Sabha Seats out of 80 Lok Sabha Seats. An account of Bahujan Samaj Party did not open, only Family members of Mulayam won their seats. It was once again repeated in 2017 in Assembly Polls. Bhartiya Janata Party made Clear Majority.

It was impossible to counter the Bhartiya Janata Party for both the Samajwadi Party and Bahujan Samaj Party. So they have shaken hands in Uttar Pradesh. They are fighting to save their own family firms. When Bahan Mayawati became Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, has done nothing her traditional vote bank. Mr. Mulayam Singh Yadav’s Government also did nothing for his traditional vote banks. In Samajwadi Party’s rule, Gangster and goons created fear among the public.

Mr. Akhilesh Yadav who was Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh has gifted all LOK SABHA SEATS in 2014 and all VIDHAN SABHA SEATS to Bhartiya Janata Party. He was unable to lead his own family, then how could he lead the Uttar Pradesh. His Uncle Mr. Shivpal Yadav quit the party and made his own family firm. Akhilesh Yadav and Mayawati are together because of their own personal interests, not public interests. If they do not fight altogether, will certainly finish.

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Sadhvi Pragya Singh Thakur has given Lok Sabha Ticket from Bhopal Constituency by BJP. This seat kept on with BJP for a long time. Sadhvi Pragya was framed in Bomb Blast by UPA Government after Malegaon Bomb Blast. At this prestigious seat, Congress has fielded its stalwart leader Former Chief Minister Mr. Digvijay Singh who was a pioneer of spreading SAFFRON TERROR TERM against RSS Ideology in the country. SAFFRON TERROR TERM was used firstly in FRONTLINE MAGAZINE in 2002. Now, Election Fight would be very interesting between Sadhvi Pragya and Mr. Digvijay Singh in Bhopal Constituency.

Although the UPA Government framed and linked many terror attacks with SAFFRON TERROR. At that time, ATS forcefully made confession to Accused. First of all, It came in limelight after SAMJHAUTA EXPRESS BLAST in 2007 during the tenure of UPA Government. At least 50 people have been killed in Pakistan - Bound Train. Maharashtra ATS framed SWAMI ASEEMANAND, A pracharak OF RSS for a blast along with Mr. Prasad Shrikant Purohit, An Indian Army Officer and a Member of ABHINAV BHARAT. Both have confessed involvement in Blast due to the pressure of ATS. After that, the U.S. also told that LASHKAR – E TAIYBBA can be responsible for the bombing in SAMJHAUTA EXPRESS. But it has been ignored by UPA Government.

The second one is AJMER DARGAH ATTACK in 2007. It was blast outside of KHWAJA MOINUDDIN CHISHTI DARGAH in Ajmer. Four persons were arrested by ATS. All connections were roped against RSS. UPA Government wanted to frame RSS for such terror attacks because they could lose the election by RSS Stronghold in the country. They wanted to defame RSS so that nobody would be interested and started in RSS Ideology.

The third attack was MALEGAON BLAST in 2008. There were three persons arrested including 20-year-old Sadhvi Pragya. She was the member of BJP YOUTH WING AKHIL BHARTIYA VIDYARTHI PARISHAD. She was beaten mercilessly with black and blue by ATS for confession. Her waist and both legs have been paralyzed. By now, she cannot walk well. She was said to confess against RSS, never did it.

The fourth one is in Hyderabad. Mecca Masjid blast took place in 2007 too. In this case, also, SIT HYDERABAD framed 4 RSS PERSONS for the bombing. After that, LASHKAR – E TAIYBA Terrorist SHAIK ABDUL KHAJA ALIAS AMKAZ was identified for the blast in MUCCA MASZID in Hyderabad.

In 2018, NIA Court acquitted all accused lack of evidence. All 226 witnesses were looked into but all did not link it with terror blasts. In this way, it is seen how the UPA Government framed wrong charges on Persons belonged to RSS for defaming it. They destroyed such person career. They were strolling hither and thither.

Sadhvi Pragya is also a victim of false charges against her. She is now contesting against Diggy Raja who demonstrated BHAGWA TERROR across the world. Bhopal must teach a lesson to Such a leader for his irresponsible activities.

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To go to Religious places in the India, it has its own importance. There is nobody who visits to the Temple without reason. Such things are learned from higher and low income groups. India’s First Prime Minister always told countrymen that Research Centres, Universities, Dams, Canals, etc. are modern temples and we should worship it because it has been changed environment of society from western countries to eastern countries across the world.

There is huge population in the india who attached themselves with their respective religious rituals. Students offer prayers to God for good marks or grades in the exam, Salaried persons do for good appraisal, Unemployed knock the door of God for employment. Religious activities are done by the poor for beliefs, by the rich for rituals, by politicians for showing to huge population.

Temple Run has become a sacred place for canvassing during the election. Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi always visits temple where he goes for campaigning. Politics Pandits understand that it is a medium for connecting with voters, so they also follow. Congress President Mr. Rahul Gandhi never visited hardly in the temple, but now he never forgets to offer prayers in the temple. During Vidhan Sabha Election in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, he went to the temple for votes and played a card of SOFT HUNDUTVA. Finally these states came into the pocket of Congress.

It is only done to counter Mr. Narendra Modi’s Visits to the temple. Mr. Narendra Modi since childhood is worshipper of God as per Hindu Mythology. It is not a new action for campaigning during election. He always goes to the temple for his firm believes on the Hindutva. He offered prayers not only during the election but also his official visits.

There was a time when the election had come, all politicians started their visits DARGAH for Muslim Voters. If SACRED MONTH OF RAMZAN came, they had bitter competition who arranged ROZA IFTAAR PARTY. Now it has been disappear from Indian Politics because they are now on TEMPLE RUN.  They offer prayers in the temple only for HINDU Votes, not his beliefs.

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We can see everywhere unsocial statements and words are being circulated for benefits in Lok Sabha Election. Politics comes down new low in Election. Political Parties indulge themselves to gain momentum. But what it really works? In the 2014 General Election, Congress, SP, BSP, and others aimed collectively at Mr. Narendra Modi for CHAIWALA JIBE, but what happened? The mandate had come in the support for Mr. Narendra Modi. These Political Parties has given free hand to make such statements for a personal attack on rivals. Although the NDA Government has given free hand to the Army in Jammu & Kashmir for fighting against terrorism.  BSP Supremo made a request to Muslim Voters to cast their vote in the favor of Mahagathbandhan. Congress Star Campaigner Mr. Navjot Singh Siddhu advised also Muslim Voters to franchise their vote against BJP at Katihar in Bihar. A comparison between Bajrang Bali and Ali started. UP CM Mr. Yogi Aditya Nath also jumped such controversial statements.

SP Leader Mr. Azam Khan warned people of RAMPUR Constituency that Jaya Prada wears Khaki Underwear (RSS OUTFIT) not to choose her over him. Such a statement is made by him, but no party leader and opposition criticized him. Sonia Gandhi, Priyanka Vadra, Mayawati, Jaya Bachchan, Mahbooba Mufti, Mamata Mufti, Dimple Yadav, etc. never said in the favor of Jaya Prada. Hate Speeches are made to counter-attack on people’s loved leader. They want to defame Honest Leaders.

Nasiruddin Shah and his theatre colleague tried hard to make a negative atmosphere for NDA Government with 600 theatre artists. After that at least 900 theatre artists supported Modi Government. But Nasiruddin Shah has been dumb and deaf for Opposition’s Hate Speeches. At present no Bollywood celebrity is listening sobbing of Jaya Prada. We are living in such a democracy where our society chooses its own propaganda to defame someone without logical reasons.

It is very difficult to understand that these political parties consider Indian People are a puppet of their false propaganda. Why ROTI, KAPADA, MAKKAN are basic election slogan since independence. It is totally a conspiracy against the citizen of India. UPA Government launched DAILY WAGES SCHEME (MGNRGA) in 2008, why it needs after 60 years of independence. Now it brings NYAY. What they did in 65 years for Country. They all were unable to solve basic requirements like Employment, Housing, Infrastructure, Transports, etc.

HATE SPEECHES are made willingly to divert the focus of key issues in the Election. Now Mandate of India feels it so they have given a clear majority to NDA in 2014 after 30 years. Oppositions constructed MHAGATHBANDHAN to dupe once again Indian Voters. Actually, they are struggling for their existence in the political scenario of the country.

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RBI cuts down the Repo Rate from 6.25 to 6.00. It predicts the growth rate for the financial year 2019-20. It also announced that the inflation rate would be between 2.9 and 3.0 during this financial year. It is a very important thing that RBI has lowered Repo Rate continuously last two quarters. It gives Indian Economy a feather to fly. If the purchasing power of Customer would increase, Economy zooms. All these things have been done to increase the purchasing power of countrymen.

As it seems, the Global Economy is suffering a tougher time for the last two quarters. Its effect on the Indian Economy is nothing by now. Economists feel that it would slow down the growth rate of the Indian Economy. Indian Government and RBI have done well to tackle such situation. Indian  Government have cut the price of Petroleum and RBI also cuts down Repo Rate by 25 Basic points. It indicates to be a cheaper interest rate.

Banks have cut down the interest rate on types of fixed deposits. Bank Loans would be easy to take because Interest rate lowered so EMI would be cheaper. In this way, people will get loans from Banks at a lower rate. Property investment is also a very good place to find the best returns. Property Rates would be in control. People will get the easy loan on lower rate.

Stock Market Investments like Real Estate, Automobile, and Consumer Goods, etc. would be easy to invest and find higher return. Due to Lower Interest rate, people rush to purchase. Repo rate, Reverse Repo Rate, SLR and CRR are monetary tools by which RBI controls the flow and liquidity of Currency.  

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Congress chief Rahul Gandhi has upped the direct benefit transfer (DBT) game to a new level by promising that if voted to power, his party will ensure 20 per cent of India's poor- about 25 crore citizens or 5 crore families-a minimum income guarantee of Rs 72,000 a year. Learning the trick of smart acronyms from Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Congress intends to call their scheme NYAY (Nyuntam Aay Yojana or basic income scheme).

Rs 72,000 for 5 crore families would mean Rs 3,60,000 crore, which is about 13 per cent of Rs 27,84,200 crore budgeted expenditure for 2019-20 and slightly more than the entire money Narendra Modi has set aside for centrally sponsored schemes in 2019-20. In other words, the budgetary allocation of Rs 3,27,679.43 crore for centrally sponsored programmes covered the central government's 29 schemes including the MNRGA,  Swatch Bharat Mission, National Health Mission and National Education Mission.

It will be about 2 per cent of GDP, which means that either India will have to go back on its fiscal discipline path or find resources by curtailing other welfare measures. Congress party claims to have already looked into the fiscal implications. We will have to wait for the party's manifesto to see if it gives more clues.

That's how some leaders of the ruling party BJP responded to the poll promise made by Rahul Gandhi. But it is far from true. In fact, central governments increase their budgetary allocations by this size in several key components of expenditure. For instance, the total expenditure proposed for 2019-20-Rs 27,84,200 crore-itself was an increase of Rs 3,26,965 crore (13.3 per cent) over the revised estimates of 2018-19. Once the full benefits of GST reforms kick in, revenue buoyancy can more than take care of such increase, provided the government will go slow on increase in expenditure elsewhere. It may tweak some schemes, reduce allocations for some other, but the promise is certainly not something which is impossible to fulfil.

While Congress needs to worry about the implementation of the scheme only if it's elected to power, it needs to be wary about BJP adopting a somewhat similar promise in its poll manifesto too. The promise to provide direct income support to small and medium scale farmers, even if it is Rs 6000 per household per year, is a beginning in this direction.

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It has been in the blood of the India to be slaved dynasty persons. Before Independence in India, almost all the RAJA or MAHARAJA was slave of British Government. They saved their own dynasty to be Servant of British India. These Dynasty collected Taxes from their own subjects for British Government. Some joined Indian National Congress under influence of Mahatma Gandhi. They always tried to save their family interest. It was an inspiration for Some Congress Leaders like Moti lal Nehru and Jawahar Lal Nehru.

After Independence, Dynasty Politics in the India rose with leap and frog. First Prime Minister of India Jawahar Lal Nehru never found the Successor from Outside of his family. He passed the Baton to Indira Gandhi. Indira Gandhi also did not find outside of the Family. She chose Sanjay Gandhi as Successor, but Unfortunately, it was Rajeev Gandhi who had no major experience in politics. After his assassination, Nehru – Gandhi Family had no member in the family who could manage family Firm Congress Party. Once, Mahatma Gandhi asked to dissolve Congress after Independence. At that time, Nehru Jee continued it. That is why, it is called Family Firm of Nehru-Gandhi Family.

In 1991, First Non-Nehru-Gandhi P V Narsimha Rao became Prime Minister of the India. He did an excellent job for the country. He had given full support to Manmohan Singh to work for LPG Policy (Liberalism, Privatization, Globalization). If Indian History writes without discrimination, P V Narsimha Rao would be best Prime Minister of the India.

On the other hand, Italian Mother, her silver with spoon children Rahul Gandhi and Priyanka Gandhi. After all, in 1996, Congress President Sita Ram Kesari was thrown out by Flatterers of Italian Mother Sonia Gandhi. Now such tendency is carried out by Rahul Gandhi. He has nothing but born as silver with spoon. He only stands here with the help of CHAMACHAS.

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NDA Government has done an excellent job for India. It works every nook and corner growth and development. Now Country is standing at the eleventh hour to choose the New Central Government. When NDA Government had come in power in 2014, it found baseless sovereignty. It needs to work systematically and strategically for national pride for India. It was said for Indian Prime Minister as “A DEHATI AURAT”. There were a number of challenges to face, but the NDA Government did extremely great works for re-shaping to India.

In this series, the Indian Government was almost out of money. It did not have money to buy Fighter Jets. Indian Air Force used rarely used Fighter Jets. NDA Government created diplomatic pressure on China, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives etc. It maintained a close relation with G-8 Nations. NDA Government had started Bullet Train Project with the help of the Japanese Government. The deal had been finalized with France for purchasing Rafale Fighter Jets.

After that, the Doklam Issue raised a grave concern on National Security and National Interest. This was advertised heavily by Print and Electronic Media. Indian Government tackled this issue with very hard diplomacy. Finally, China agreed with the facts given by Indian Authority. This matter showed the solidification of Government.

Pakistan Spy Agency ISI always creates hurdle in Kashmir. NDA Government had given FREE-HAND to Indian Army in Kashmir by which Terrorism in Kashmir is on the back foot. There is no measure terror attack within 5 years. Uri took place, but Indian Authority retaliated strongly and did Surgical Strike on the launch pad cross the border. Indian Army had done it in Myanmar earlier. It was the first time in India when Indian Army crossed the border for Surgical Strike. Pathan Kot attack was also a concern. NDA Government handled it beautifully and gave a chance to Islamabad to do something against Terror. But all are in vain. Finally, the NDA Government had to take strict action.

When Election Campaign has been started, Jaish – e – Mohammad did a notorious attack on CRPF Personnel in Pulwama. At this time once again, the NDA Government took tit for tat action against Terror. Indian Air Force bombed on Training Camp of Jaish – e – Mohammad in Balakot. At the time of the bombing, NTRO told at least 300 active sim cards in use. It means lots of terrorists were buried. Indian Air Force Commander Abhinanadan was captured by Pakistan Army. Due to the diplomatic pressure, Islamabad had to be freed Commander Abhinandan.

Now, this is high time election so choose the right government so that it can carry the nation’s expectation. If our Prime Minister would strong, we also will be strong. If we would be strong, Our Country always would be strong.

 

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India once again stands with citizens of India where Indians would franchise their votes to make a new government in 2019. This is not an election here, but it is a festival. Indian citizens observe the working of Government, use their voting rights. Almost Five years time period has come to end. The public must watch the working culture of the Central Government. NDA Government has delivered excellent works for growing economic bases.

First of all NDA Government opened Bank Account of people with the help of JAN DHAN ACCOUNT SCHEME. NDA Government made bank account number connected with ADHAAR NUMBER and PAN CARD. It means any kind of transaction made by someone, has been watched carefully. NDA Government used such Bank Account to deposit demonetized notes of Rs. 500 & Rs. 1000 so that it could find out how much amount has been deposited.

Then the NDA Government has saved Banks from bankruptcy. It demonetized all Rs. 500 & Rs. 1000 notes. Before the demonetization, India had two Currency Economies. First was white Currency which was showed to Banks and taxes were also applicable to it. The second one was Black Currency. It was unknown. Taxes were not paid such black money or currency. Due to demonetization, Black Money with taxes was deposited in the Bank. That is why the Purchasing Power of the Bank increased and started its usual business. A system of Black money or currency had been almost finished.

Now it was must important to increase tax collection within the country. Central Government brought with GOODS & SERVICES TAX. This system has been done online IGST Number. Everybody is in business gets IGST Number. Due to such services, Tax Evasion eradicated and tax collection within the country had increased. It is very suspicious controversy in the country that people can buy car worth to 10 lakhs or 12 lakhs, but they do not come tax slab. It is necessary to bring such creamy layers in Tax Collection.

Now it can be seen in the country everywhere. If a country’s Tax Collection would be strong, money will flow in the government. All kind of welfare scheme would be run. Sophisticated weapons would be purchased for its regional security. This NDA Government has done a lot for Tax Reforms more than Vote Bank Politics.

 

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Some persons in our society never die or expire. They always surround us with his works and personality. Nature lives with those miracle personalities. As we know, God always needs such great personalities in his own world.

Manohar Parrikar was such a positive terrific personality. He was born in Goa, smallest state area wise in India. He was a Marathi Brahman. He joined in RSS during his schooling. He was first IITian in India who became Member of Legislative Assembly in Goa. He became Chief Instructor in RSS during his education time. He was alumna of IIT Bombay. If he would have wanted, could settle his career on foreign soil. He chose Politics so that he could change the country.

He became Chief Minister of Goa. He bloomed KAMAL in Goa. He was once front runner to become President of BJP. His simplicity reached him epitome of success through public service. He changed politics of Goa forever. He was a bridge between church and temple in Goa.

As per request of Central Government, he became Defence Minister of India. He worked very swiftly. During his tenure, Surgical Strike had been carried out. His role was very crucial. Unfortunately he returned back to Goa as Chief Minister. His attitude of working created high morale of the Army. He was a mascot of Honesty and simplicity. He always wore half sleeve shirt, formal pant and sandal. Such a great personality rarely appears on the earth.

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I was very afraid of the train when my father scolded and beat me for playing Kancha. He was a fruit seller and wanted that I must have helped him. I felt very depressed. I caught a Mumbai bound train. Fortunately, I alighted off the train at Kalyan Railway Station where I found some restless persons who wanted to monetize their natural capability. I saw crowded platforms were filled for waiting for Local Trains. Everybody was connecting oneself to board on the train. Now it has been 10 ten years to spend here, the time has come to return home for treatment for my father. I was by now a successful seller of vegetables in Mumbai like a metro city. He was very angry when he beat me for not playing with Gully Boys.

The preparation was at its final stage. I had to catch a train for Banaras. I had a number of memories of my childhood. Finally, I reached Varanasi Cantt. There was nobody who could welcome and receive me. I was away about 10 years from my birthplace. It was very terrific to persuade myself.

Suddenly, a call came from one of my childhood friends. He told me to come at Manikarnika ghat where last rites take place to Dead persons. Once I tremble and shun. A thought came to my mind, I lost somebody very close. But I learned a lot to live in Mumbai where people die on the road without treatment. I had become a habit to face it. After thinking it, I managed myself.”All is well”. I depicted dialogue from Three Idiots Movie.

At last, I arrived there. I saw numerous dead bodies were being burnt as per ritual of Hindu Mythology. My younger brother had become tonsured. I thought, ”but why?” suddenly I gazed the pale face of my father for whom I returned back after ten years. I was stunned and unmovable. What to do and what to express? I did not realize. I was in deep grief to lose someone who made my life to scold and beat me so that I left those friendship circles were to divert me from helping my father.

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Cricket is the sport of Elite Group of people. It is played hardly in 20 Nations in which only 12 Countries play cricket on a regular basis. India is always a strong contender for ICC Tournament after winning World Cup in 1983 led by Legendary Player Kapil Dev. India also wins world cup 2011 led by Charismatic MS Dhoni.

World Cup 2019 is very near. No more time left for its preparation. It needs very much to practice and right direction to move. Recently ahead of World Cup, Host India lost ODI Series and Twenty Twenty Series against novice Australia after leading 2-0. Australian Batsmen and Bowlers did a terrific job to defeat mighty India in its den.

Nobody was being expected such a result. Everybody thought India would show its preparation for World Cup 2019. But the result is totally different. India must have kept MS Dhoni in the last two games. If the series would have been decided by third ODI, Dhoni can be rested. Dhoni is not only a keeper batsman in the team but also one of the best game changer and reader. It would be easy to Indian Captain Kohli to take advice from Dhoni.

At this time, Dhoni is one of the best middle order batsman. There is nobody in competition for wicket keeping skill. Such skills have been created and made by Dhoni. Dhoni can be a game changer in the World Cup. It must be considered by Team Management.

One of the most talking points is to choose Rishabh Pant over Dinesh Kartik. Dinesh Karthik is a very good batsman and a reliable wicket keeper. He can bat as per situation of the team on the field. Rishabh is purely a heater. After the World Cup, Rishabh could be included in the team. India must keep the best team in ICC Tournament. Rishabh failed to utilize the absence of Kartik and Dhoni. He batted upper, middle and lower batting order but did not score well.

Australian Team has no inclusion of Steven Smith and David Warner. Its bowling has no big gun, but they played as a unit in both ODI and Twenty Twenty Series. Pitches were flat. There was nothing disturbing point. Indian team constantly changed batting and bowling order. Australian team took advantage of it. Indian Team gave an advantage to Opponent ahead of World Cup 2019. Preparation of World Cup hurt more and more. If a team is going to play a big tournament, Batting and bowling order must be clear and decisive.

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Brexit is a technical word encrypted by the United Kingdom. It means the United Kingdom would be withdrawn from the European Union. It has been set a target time at 11:00 PM on 29th March 2019. The United Kingdom would exit from Europe as per political, educational and economic engagements. The United Kingdom would be treated as an outsider in Europe Continent. All the economical facility would be brought down. It would be a grave and disastrous step of United Kingdom.

European Union formerly was named 1993. Before, it was called European Communities. The United Kingdom became part of this organization in 1973. At that time, the Conservative party was in power. They took the decision to join it for taking on the United States and Russia. Both nations United Kingdom and Russia locked horn after the Second World War. All over the world had been divided into two parts. Almost Every country was with either United States pro or Russia pro. In that situation, European strong nations were struggling to save their identity. So European Nations made such an organization.

The beginning of the European Union had been informally started in 1951. One by one all nations of Europe understood the strength of unity and formed it. Its purpose was not to counter the United States and Russia. It wanted to churn out economic benefits as raw materials from Developing and Under-Developed Nations. Economical Condition of European Union improved but differences in Education Pattern created a major hurdle. The educational system of the United Kingdom is better than any other European Country. As per the European Union Treaty, Students would be free to choose their educational institution in Europe.

Majority of students in Europe attracted more with United Kingdom’s Educational System. That is why they moved to the United Kingdom to study. It was the bell of danger for the student of the United States. It is a bone of contention.

Many times, When the Labour Party came to power, the referendum took place but it supported to remain in the European Union. Completion among the student, it had been an inflammable issue in 2015. At that time, Prime Minister David Cameron promised a new referendum for Brexit. A referendum took place on 23rd June 2016 and 51.9% Voters did not remain with the European Union. Finally, David Cameron resigned as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. His Internal Minister Theresa May took over as Prime Minister of United Kingdom. She is trying hard not to remain with the European Union.

Meanwhile, the Referendum Party and United Kingdom Independence Party were formed to be ousted the United Kingdom from the European Union. Recently, the House of Commons remained with the European Union and voted down demand to withdraw from the European Union. It has been a street fight for the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom can either save its intellectual property or economical property. It has been clear by now.

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Congress is a political party or was leading a pressure group for Indian Freedom. It is uncertain and Non-Predictable. Congress was founded by A Retired English Officer A. O. Hume in 1885 who was District Magistrate of Kanpur during the first revolution for freedom in 1857 in India. He established Congress because the English Government could know the feeling of the Indian so that second revolution for freedom could not take place. It means Congress was an agent for the English Government. Slowly and slowly, Some Nationalist minds joined in Congress. These Nationalist Minds started their demand for POORN SWARAJ. As per Ideology, Congress divided into NARAM DAL & GARAM DAL. Members of NARAM DAL only requested to British Government for their demand, but Members of GARAM DAL threatened to British Government for agitation if their demand was ignored. Finally, Congress had been a dangerous pressure group for the British Government and a dominant voice of the Indian.

After many ups downs, Congress established itself a clear voice against the British Government under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. First of all, Mahatma Gandhi led the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1921. This Movement was very successful. British Government trembles the power of Non-Violence. Unfortunately, Gandhi Jee rolled back that movement when violence took place at Chauri chaura in Gorakhpur. If movement would have been carried on some days, India would have got SWARAJ. Everything collapsed.

After a number of delegations of meetings, it passed 15 to 16 years. Congress Culture had started to grow, that is why Neta Jee Subhash Chandra Bose quit Congress after he won the second term continuously despite the opposition of Mahatma Gandhi. Second World War had broken out. All over the world left no stone unturned to defeat TOKYO-ROME-BERLIN. Neta Jee Subhash Chandra Bose found support from Tokyo and Berlin to fight against MITRA RASHTRA. He was a challenging threat to British Rule and Congress. At last, Germany was defeated by Russia and France Defeated to Italy. Japan was not accepting its defeat so United States bombed atom bombs on its two cities HEROSHIMA & NAGASAKI on 6th August and 9th August, 1945 respectively. Neta jee’s Plane also crashed or he was captured by Russia.

At that time, All World Leaders wanted to give freedom to all 9 colonies of Great Britain. They made huge pressure on the British Government due to a possible threat From Tokyo to New Delhi. British Prime Minister refused its demand. When Election was held in Britain, Churchill faced defeat. Etally became Prime Minister of Great Britain. He ordered to free all 9 colonies. That is why India got freedom. Congress had been pure congress culture. Mahatma knew it so he wanted to finish it. But Jawahar Lal Nehru was keen to become Prime Minister of India. This was one of the reasons for partition between India and Pakistan.

Congress had voted for Interim Prime Minister. Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel won against Jawahar Lal Nehru by 13-2 margin. But due to Congress culture, he did not become Prime Minister. Nehru became First Prime Minister of India. It had begun of dynastic and family firm politics. Jawahar Lal Nehru Rajeev Gandhi, all born with silver spoon. Now Rahul Gandhi is trying hard to prove GANDHI-NEHRU Family has birthright to become Prime Minister in a Democratic Country.

 

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Election Commission has announced the date of Lok Sobha Election. Every Political Party is leaving no stone unturned to tackle Public. Indian public is very emotional because they cast their vote on the basis of Religion, Regionalism, Castes, Emotionalism etc. India is one of the best democratic countries in the world. Almost 90 Crores Indians are adults who franchise their vote for building the Indian Government. There are people who belong to different religions and cultures. They choose a government that would run and lead the country without discrimination.

There is a festival of the election. Elections are held every year as per requirements, but the curiosity of Lok Sabha Election is a very high spirit. Public know that so and so the candidate is not good as per representative of their constituency, but they franchise their vote in favour of BAHUBALI NETA & CORRUPTS. Indian gives their vote for cash and wine. After election, they appear before their Representative as SLAVE.

If a person casts his vote in favour of caste and religion, how can he ask his representative for the development of his constituency? It happens only in India where CRIMINALS, CORRUPTS, BAHUBALI NETA etc. win elections after distribution cash and wine in the election.  Roads, Electricity, Bridges, Unemployment etc. are the only slogan to fool a honest citizen. It does not take place in India.

Indian Media is busy to show on its news channel that DAADI and POTI have the same nose category. It never discusses real issues on which Election must be fought. India is the only country in the world where Political Party is not a political party. It has become FAMILY FIRM & A MEDIUM of RAJ BHOG in world largest democratic country. It is not predictable what Indians think about Election. All the elections in India like Lok Sabha, Vidhan Sabha, Panchayat, Parshad have same agenda Electricity, Unemployment, Road etc. but Indians never found solution of such a mainstream issue by now.

There is a trend to save their family firm to fight the election with GATHBANDHAN. Some alliance become before the election or some after election. They do it only to spend more and more time in Government for earning money to establish their bastion. Indian Government has enough money to fulfil the primary demands of the Public. There is COMMISSIONGIRI everywhere in India.

Indians must choose a responsible government which would be able to sort out at least primary issues of the country. They must deny cash and wine system for casting vote. Attention of all world leaders and world media aim Indian Elections because there is a market where 125 crores customers live.

If Indians cast their votes for progressive development, it would very positive effect in the world. Indians will earn all fundamental facilities along with lots respect from world media and dismantle such political parties which run the family business.

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War itself is a super destroyer word. It gives a number of benefits. But how and why? War took, takes and will take place everywhere. It has created many countries and spoiled many countries. It is also now working to create or destroy history. War was fought since time immemorial.

If we discuss after second world war, we will find that war took place in democratic governments. When kings were existed, war was happened due to riff-raff things. But from 1945, we can observe that war was fought among democratic countries. As example, it can be counted war between India and Pakistan, North Korea and South Korea, Israel and Palestine, West Germany and East Germany etc. We must think why such war was fought. United States entered in Vietnam, Kuwait, Iraq and Afghanistan as per its own diplomacy.

All countries mentioned above, all of them are neighbour. Developed Nations fought each other and destroyed its young generation and economy. These countries did not fight one another, it was made them fought to create false propaganda because developed Nations like United States, England, Russia, France etc. was to sell its sophisticated weapons and sold it very tactically and strategically.

These developed countries gave some favour and financial helps to war led countries. United States made F-16 Fighter Jet, Russia made Sukhoi, France made Mirage. War led countries were approached to sell it and told them advantage on their enemy countries. That is why, F-16, Sukhoi, Mirage etc. were bought by War led Countries.

War led countries struck in economic crisis. Now developed nations gave debt to them. All sophisticated weapons are being sold by these developed nations to such countries. War led countries cannot afford minimum requirements of its citizen like foods, employment, housing etc, but they brought, bring and will bring such a sophisticated weapons.

Government of these developed nations are being run by Industrialists. They are in the government or funding to political parties so that they could take advantage to sell their products in War led countries. This is a propaganda of war. War is not solution of problems. It must understand these countries not to weaken their economy and young generation for the fear of war.

These developed nations only creates an environment to sell their weapons to developing and under – developed countries. War led countries must re-consider their strategy to counter such a grave problem for its own country for sake of its forth coming generation.

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Kashmir has been hell of the Earth. It was said, ”Kashmir is heaven of Earth.” Naturally Kashmir is a state of Natural Beauty. Bur after 1990, it has become a Slur. There is a grave problem of Kashmiri who want a new nation or choose Pakistan. They eat of India and give preference to New Nation or Pakistan.

It started at 1947 when India and Pakistan both got freedom. There was a common point for partition of India and Pakistan based on population. At that time, two princely states Kashmir and Hyderabad wanted its own freedom and nation. Both states were Muslim majority, but both wanted freedom. Hyderabad was emerged in India due to Military Force. Pakistan attacked on Kashmir to emerge and pushed the army of King of Kashmir Hari Singh. King Hari Singh was very frightened and wrote to Indian Government for help. Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel was Internal affairs of india. He sent Indian Army to Kashmir and pushed back to Pakistan Army. Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru went to United Nations. United Nations told India and Pakistan to stop war. War had been stopped. There was a line between India and Pakistan in Kashmir, that is called, “Line of Control.” India has 55% area and Pakistan has 45% area. Situation is status qua by now.

Pakistan always tried to push back Indian Army for full control on Kashmir. Both nations fought in 1965 and Indian won. But India lost won war in Tashkand. In 1971, Pakistan was in deep trouble in East Pakistan due to Civil War. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi divided Pakistan into two parts. It is called “Bangladesh”. Pakistan humiliated and poured in dust. But once again, India lost won war against Pakistan in Shimla.

Now, Pakistan started to avoid face to face war against India. It started another way to take control on Kashmir. In 1980, a war broke out between Russia and Afghanistan. Due to cold war against Russia, United States supplied huge military components to Afghanistan with help of Pakistan because it was evergreen friend of United States. Finally war was won by Afghanistan when Afghanistan Army broke into mountains, Russia Army did not understand this plan and defeated.

Army equipments supplied by United States, had been moved towards Kashmir by Pakistan secret Agency ISI. Kashmiri Militancy had started to free from 55% area of India. It is continued by now to take total control on Kashmir. ISI roped a number of terrorist groups to attack on India because of not face to face attack.

Now, In Kashmir, Army has been deployed but Separatist leaders with help of Pakistan do not want peace in Kashmir. Their own children are taking higher education in Foreign University of Developed Nations, they made pelting stone thrown in Kashmir Valley. Indian politicians also helped and help directly or indirectly to Separatist Leaders. It is very critical time for Indian Government to test its patience. Indian Government must trample such a grave situation to save Kashmir at any cost.

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At present, Everybody is busy to justify Balakot Airstrike. Indian Government and Opposition allege each other for overlooking National Security. Indian Public is confused what is right or wrong. News channels are engaged itself for paid news. News papers have been a soft prey of these political parties. Who is printing or showing genuine news? It is questionable.

In 2016, Uri attack took place. All political parties criticised and gave full support to Central Government to take strict action against Terrorism. Central Government gave free hand Indian Army. Indian Army planned to teach a lesson to Terrorist Groups of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. Indian Army did surgical strike in which at least 45 terrorists were killed and many launch pads of terrorists were destroyed. Opposition started dogfight with Central Government if Surgical Strike had been done or not. Such internal conflict spread all over the world. If members of the family would raise such a grave situation, what will happen in world community?

In 2019, A suicide Bomber of Kashmir killed more than 40 CRPF Personnel in Pulwama. Suicide bomber had taken training in Jaish – E- Mohammad’s Training Camp in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. Jaish –E-Mohammad took responsibility of attack. This time also all Indian political parties support to Central Government to take decisive steps against terrorism. At this time, Central Government instructed and directed to all three wings of Indian Army.

Indian Air Force decided to attack on BALAKOT which is seemed MUCCA and MADINA of Terrorism and Jihad. This place is not situated in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, but KHYBER STATE in Pakistan. It is more than 80 km far away from Line of Control. Indian Air Force went and destroyed targeted places given by NTRO. At least, 300 Mobile Phones were active before execution of Indian Air Force. It is not possible to count dead bodies of Terrorists when air strike takes place.

At this time, once again, Political Parties of India want how many dead bodies were there. As per mobiles signals, it is said nearly 300 Terrorists were there, but Parties need proof. What an image of Indian Political System are going to International Politics. Indian Public had voted full majority government in 2014 after 30 years. Central Government is working well at every area of country establishment. Opposition is very desperate to topple Central Government for its own personal interests. Indian Public is not in trouble, on the contrary, Opposition is disturbed for its existence if Central Government kept on working such way.

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American president Donald Trump announces to end Generalized System of Preferences with India. This system has been made for Developing and Under-Developed Countries to boost its export to Developed Countries. India takes huge advantage to export its commodities to United States. Almost $5.6 billion export is done every year by India to United States. GSP is working for India since 1976.

 

It comes in effect because India is top most country to increase GDP. India has levied various tariffs on Imported Commodities. That is why, many developed nations like United States and Great Britain think, India does not need such advantages. India has capped Knee Transplant and Stents for Heart. These are brought by United States. United States wants to increase the rate such essential medical treatment. American Companies are unable to garner money from medical devices. As  American President has more problems with Indian Tariff System. He raised a concern with Prime Minister Narendra Modi for Harley Davidson’s Super Bike.

 

At this time, India set to go for Lok Sabha Election. There is no hope in near future to earn more money from Indian market. All necessary items would be cheap. United States thinks that it is good to end Generalized System of Preferences. Indian Government has denied any effect on export of country.

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Indian opposition parties have been mad for evidence on Indian Air Strike on Balakot. Indian Air Force gave its clarification saying,” We hit our target, counting casualties is not task for us.” As we know that Mirage 2000 had entered bluntly in Pakistan and strike on Balakot which is situated on Khyber, not Pakistan Occupied Kashmir. This place is located almost 80 km from LOC. Indian Mirage 2000 had gone to hit target. If they would have strike on mountains or forest, no need to go to Balakot. They can hit it in POK.

42 CRPF Personnel were killed in Suicide Attack in Pulwama. Jaish – e – Mohammad has taken responsibility of this suicide attack. It is done by Kashmiri Youth whose was given training POK.

Indian Government has taken a strong action against Jaish – e – mohammad. 12 mirage 2000 fighter jets entered in Pakistan and destroyed training camp of Jaish – e – mohammad. In response from Pakistan, their 3 F-16 fighter jets were coming to attack on Military establishment in Kashmir. But mighty Indian air force foiled their collective attack. By defending its military establishment, MIG-21 Bason strike and destroyed one of F-16 fighter jets. But MIG-21 Bason has crashed due to technical reason. MIG-21 is called “FLYING COFFIN”.

But Indian opposition parties speak language of enemy country, not opposition language. It is very unfortunate foe sake of country and dedicated Indian army.