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By:-RAHUL KUMAR MISHRA||29 - Jun - 2019

INTRODUCTION

In 1975, Indira Gandhi Government imposed National Emergency as per Article 352 due to the intense pressure of his younger son Mr. Sanjay Gandhi. It was said that Mr. Sanjay Gandhi without any portfolio was the most powerful person in the Indian Government. Mrs. Indira Gandhi never interrupted his interference in her Government. She had also desire after her, Mr. Sanjay Gandhi would lead the Congress Party and the Indian Government. She has been a Stooge in the Government. Every Decision was taken by Mr. Sanjay Gandhi.

BACKGROUND OF EMERGENCY

In 1967, the Golaknath Case was carried out by the Supreme Court of India. In this case, the Supreme Court verdict was not to be amended in Fundamental Rights in Parliament. But Mrs. Indira Gandhi was Prime Minister of India. She amended 24th Constitutional Amendments in 1971. After that Congress Government was lost its case of Privy Purse Case in Supreme Court. Privy Purse means that all the king who merged their Princely states in India, took hefty pensions and facilities from the Indian Government. Mrs. Indira Gandhi did not want to continue such a scheme to them. Congress Government made once again 26th Constitutional Amendments. It was a direct conflict between Mrs. Indira Gandhi and the Supreme Court. In 1971, Mrs. Indira Gandhi defeated all veteran leaders who were against her and took clear majority with her Election Slogan (GHARIBI HATAO) in Lok Sabha. After some time, Keswanand Bharti Case Verdict trembled to Mrs. Indira Gandhi. Supreme Court nullified 24th Constitutional Amendments and gave the verdict that nobody could change the Basic Structure of Constitution. Mr. Raj Narain who fought Lok Sabha Election from Rae Bareilly against Mrs. Indira Gandhi in 1971, filed a case in Allahabad  High Court for misusing Government Machinery in Rae Bareilly to win the Election. Its Verdict had come in 1975 and Allahabad High Court declared her election null and void. During this phase, some student movements were also against the Central Government. Bihar and Gujarat were leaders for such activities under Mr. Jay Prakash Narayan. Central Government arrested Mr. Jay Prakash Narayan and put him in the dock. All Popular and Dominated Leaders were imprisoned into the jail. Such Movements had been trampled by Congress Government. Immediate Reason for Emergency was Mr. Raj Narain Case in which Allahabad High Court nullified Mrs. Indira Gandhi’s Election from Rae Bareilly.

DURING EMERGENCY PERIOD

On 25th June of 1975, Article 352 (Emergency) was imposed before several minutes of midnight citing Internal Conspiracy along with External links in India. Freedom of News Papers and Magazines had been destroyed. All Opposition Leaders like Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayee,  Mr. Lal Krishna Advani, Mr. Moraraji Desai, George Fernandez, etc. were arrested and kept them behind the bar. Nobody could write against the Congress Government. All Jails were filled with Political Leaders. There was no ray of hope they would be free or not. Mr. Sanjay Gandhi was a prime member to do so. He started to justify Emergency in his Speeches. He influenced Film Industry too much in Congress Favour. He made Film Producers, Directors, Actors, and Actress favored Emergency. Once, Singer, Mr. Kishor Kumar denied singing in a Youth Program of Congress Party. His songs were banned on ALL INDIA RADIO.

Mr. Sanjay is called “DARK PRINCE OF EMERGENCY”.

Mr. Sanjay Gandhi scripted 5 programs during Emergency.

  • First was to do Family Planning for Population Control,
  • The second was to plant Trees for Environment Plantation,
  • The third was to increase Literacy Rate,
  • The fourth was to eradicate Casteism,
  • The fifth was to abolish of Dowry.

These all programs were genuine to work for Welfare of India. But Burning Question is why he chose it during Emergency. Such Programs were being done On Target Based Level.

END OF EMERGENCY

After a few months of Emergency in India, Bangladeshi President Mr. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was assassinated in his Presidential House along with his whole family members on 15th August 1975. His two daughters Sheikh Hasina (She is now Prime Minister of Bangladesh) and Sheikh Rehana escaped because they were in West Germany for a trip. Mrs. Indira Gandhi frightened to this act and started to search a common way by which She would remain Prime Minister of India and keep safe herself and her family.  Whenever Mrs. Indira Gandhi went to Foreign Trip, she was asked others Head of Countries why Emergency had been imposed and her respect also fell down in International Politics. Once she played a key role for Bangladesh’s Freedom in 1971. Now she imposed Emergency in her own state and finished all Fundamental Rights for Citizens of India. She made cheers for Muslims to emerge “SECULARISM” in the Preamble of Indian Constitution in 42nd Constitutional Amendments. Muslims were very fumed and annoyed with the Family Planning Program. Finally, She had taken the decision for General Election in India. On 21st March 1977 Emergency was lifted and Darkest Chapter of Indian Democracy ended. Congress Party was defeated by Janata Party Alliance. Mr. Raj Narain at this time defeated Mrs. Indira Gandhi. Mr. Sanjay Gandhi fought Election first time, also defeated from Amethi. Mr. Moraraji Desai became Prime Minister of India.

CONCLUSION

In this way, Indian Voters franchise their vote to end Emergency. When she divided Pakistan into two Countries, then threat on India from Western and Eastern Border had been looped after partitioned Pakistan and Bangladesh into Two Countries in 1971, Mrs. Indira Gandhi was not only liked of his party member, but also opposition. Within 4 years, she had become the biggest enemy of Indian Democracy, Indian People, Indian Mandate and Indian Constitution. She never controlled Mr. Sanjay Gandhi for his un-ruling interference. Some Central Ministers also denied to Mr. Sanjay Gandhi’s Orders. They were removed out from Ministries by Mrs. Indira Gandhi.

Mr. Sanjay Gandhi’s Five Program was very favorable for Indians. Due to the working style and execution, it went totally wrong. It was said that Mr. Sanjay Gandhi’s secret men were in every village. All these things have been failed in the 1977 General Election. Both Mrs. Indira Gandhi and Mr. Sanjay Gandhi were in full confidence that Congress would win the 1977 General Election. Mr. Sanjay Gandhi was in doubt but due to Mrs. Indira Gandhi, his doubts were ignored. Congress Party won 352 Lok Sabha Seats out of 518. Congress Party was routed out from Total North India including Rae Bareilly and Amethi Seats. Both mother and son lost their bastion. Congress Party won only 153 Lok Sabha Seats in the 1977 General Election.

 

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