By:-RAHUL KUMAR MISHRA||04 - Aug - 2019


In Solar System, there are many planets rounding the Sun. Planets have also their Natural Satellites who round its planets. The Earth has also Natural Satellite, that is called Moon (CHANDRAMA). It is a permanent natural satellite. It is fifth largest satellite in the Solar System. It is considered that The Moon was formed almost 4.50 billion years ago. It formed due to collision between the Earth and The Theia (A large body like The Mars). The Moon’s average orbital distance is 384,402 km. This is about thirty times the diameter of the Earth. It orbits the Earth once every 27.322 days. It also rotates on its axis and takes almost 27 days.

The orbit and the rotation are not perfectly matched. The moon travels around the Earth in an Elliptical Orbit, a slightly stretched – out circle. When the moon is closest to the Earth, its rotation is slower than its journey through space. It is 80C additional in Eastern Side. When it is farthest from the Earth, the rotation is faster, so additional 80C are visible on the western side.


The Moon is considered Queen of the Solar System. As per Vedic System, The Moon is a natural benefit and is capable of giving great mental power and prosperity. Prosperity in life is directly linked with the combined positions of the Moon with the Jupiter or other beneficial planets in a horoscope. The Jupiter adds prosperity and wealth with the Moon. The Moon is considered tender by nature and represents love and beauty.

The Moon has direct effect on Females. The Menstrual Periods are governed by the movement and difference phases of the Moon. Water is element of the Moon. Gravitational force of the Moon and sun causes tides in the Oceans. The Moon has no light of its own. It  reflects the sun light on the Earth.



After Second World War, Cold war took place between Soviet Union and United States of America. Both nations wanted Moon Mission for building Military Camp at the Moon. It accelerated rivalry to them. Firstly in 1958, Soviet Union sent its Space Craft “LUNA 1” to the Moon. But it failed and could not be able to land on the Moon. After that Soviet Union once again prepared “LUNA – 2” for landing on the Moon. But it only landed there. No photographs came. Soviet Union made third attempt with “LUNA – 3” and it was very successful. Photographs came in 1959.

First Space Craft “LUNA – 9” was able for soft landing. “LUNA – 10” was first Space Craft which orbited the Moon in 1966. “LUNA – 16” brought some samples of Rock and Soils in 1970. In this way, Russia sent 24 LUNA Space Craft on the Moon. These all Space and Moon Journey were unmanned.


During Cold War in 1950, United States Army planned to make a manned military station on the Moon. This was called “PROJECT HORIZON”. It was planned to test Lunar Based Nuclear Test. In 1961, American President Mr. John F Kennedy made a promise for manned mission at end of decade. Under leadership of NASA (THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION), Preparation had been started with multiple unmanned mission on the Moon. United States of America made “APOLLO” Space Craft for manned mission on the Moon. A series of testing had been done with “APOLLO” Space Craft on the Earth.

NASA trained three persons (Neil Armstrong, Advin Aldrin and Collins) for the Moon’s First Manned Mission. “APOLLO – 11” was designed with sophisticated technology. This manned Space Craft was divided into three parts. First part was with Mr. Collins who only orbited the Moon and did not go on the Moon. Second was by which Mr. Armstrong and Mr. Aldrin went on the Moon. Third was by which they returned from the Moon. All three parts were inter-connected and separated easily.

Finally “APOLLO – 11” was launched from Kennedy Space Centre in 1969. Mr. Neil Armstrong became first person to feet on the Moon. After 20 minutes, Mr. Advin Aldrin joined him. They both collected 21 Kg. sample of Rocks and Soils and kept in space craft. They travelled at least one kilo meter on the Moon. In this period, Mr. Collins was orbiting around the Moon. Both historical persons on the Moon talked to American President Mr. Richard Nixon on Phone. All this journey was telecast Live on Television. At least 60 Lakhs people of World watched it Live and became witness of this glorious journey for the Moon.

In 1994, United States of America sent an unmanned space craft “CLEMENTINE” to Lunar Orbit. It brought first global topographic map of the Moon and multispectral images of the Moon’s surface. United States of America once again planned an unmanned mission for the Moon. In 1998, it conducted “MISSION PROSPECTOR”. After completion this mission, it was found bulk quantity of Hydrogen Gas at Moon’s Poles. It indicated that the Moon might have water.

United States of America launched LRO (LUNAR RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER) and LCROSS in 2009. LCROSS completed its work by the end of 2009. Although LRO is now working position and taking high –resolution imaginary. NASA always releases its imaginary photographs. NASA sent two more unmanned space craft for orbiting the Moon in 2012 and are capturing data of Moon’s Internal Structure.

In 2004, Former U.S. President Mr. George W. Bush called for a manned mission on the Moon by 2019 and indicated a construction a base on the Moon by 2024. It could not completed by now.


After that, Many Nations planned Operation Moon. Some had succeeded and some did not find place. Japan also became third country to place its Space Craft “HITEN” in the Moon’s orbit in 1990. This space Craft was unmanned and sent a few things for Research and Development Studies for the Moon. Its Transmitter had failed.

Japan planned another Moon Mission in 2007. The Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency’s “KAGUYA” (SELENE) fitted with a high definition video Camera and two small radio – transmitter satellites. It got Lunar Geo-Physics data and first high – definition movies from beyond Earth Orbit.


European Nations made an organization to counter India, United States of America and China for their presence in International Politics. This organization also scaled the Moon Mission. That is called “EUROPEAN UNION”. European Union’s first Space Craft “SMART – 1” was sent on Lunar Orbit in 2004. It was activated by 2006. It sent chemical elements of Lunar Surface.  


China also emerged itself in the race of Moon in 2007. Chinese Space Craft “CHANG’E 1” successfully set up itself in Moon Orbit and kept on sending images and chemical analysis by 2009. After that, China planned for “CHANG’E 2” in 2010. It was not a mission for Moon Orbit, but China Space Unmanned Craft reached at Moon Surface. China made long jump in a very little time in Space and Moon Projects. It continued by 2012. China could not stop itself and they launched “CHANG’E 3” in 2013. “CHANG’E 3” landed on moon with soft landing system. China kept a rover in its space craft so that it could map distance of having rover and send multiple images and chemical elements at different place. Its Rover’s name was “YUTU”. China now is planning for “CHANG’E 4” by 2020.


In 2007, Google also expressed its interest in the Moon and encouraged commercial endeavours to the Moon with the help of X Prize Foundation. But it has been by now not completed. It has been clear that private big players are taking huge interest for the Moon. In August 2016, the United States of America’s Government gave permission to a start-up Moon Express to land on the Moon. This marked the first ever that private firm was given such permission to explore on the Moon.

In 28th February 2018, SpaceX, Vodafone, Nokia and Audi planned a pact to install a 4G Wireless Communication network on the Moon for streaming live footage on the surface to the Earth.


By the time, India also emerged itself for Moon Mission. ISRO (Indian space and Research Organization) planned to send its Space Craft “CHANDRAYAAN – 1) in 2008. “CHANDRAYAAN – 1 brought more evidences by which it can be believed that water is available on the Moon. “CHANDRAYAAN – 1 discovered LUNAR ICE there. It was first and most successful mission for ISRO as per interest of India. ISRO planned “CHANDRAYAAN 2” to launch in 2013. India took Russia’s help for Rover but Russia failed to deliver a rover to India, so this mission had been late. India made its own Rover named “PRAGYAAN” on the name of Mr. Vikram Sarabhai, Father of Indian Space Program.


CHANDRAYAAN -2 is an Indian Mission that will go to the Moon’s south pole, Dark side of Moon. It has been launched on 22nd July 2019 from SATISH DHAWAN SPACE CENTER at SRIHARIKOTA in Andhra Pradesh. It was earlier scheduled to be launched on 15th July but had been postponed due to a technical glitch. CHANDRAYAAN – 2 will continue for its purpose by a year.

CHANDRAYAAN – 2 would collect information of elemental composition of the Moon and Water Ice confirmation. It has an orbiter high resolution camera for topography mapping. It will explore water on south pole of the Moon where light of the Sun cannot reach. This area always covers with darkness. There may be existence of water ice because light never comes there. The Moon’s temperature is very high and low. Its day temperature is +1300C and night is -1800C.

CHANDRAYAAN – 2 will try for soft landing on the Moon with the help of its VIKRAM Module on 6th September 2019 and A Rover named PRAGYAAN on the Moon to signal out many experiments. Rover PRAGYAAN will cover 500 meter distance and collect data from those spots. Total 38 soft landing attempts are made by now, but more than half has been failed.


There is a question why at present so many countries and big fat companies are very interested to explore the Moon. During cold war, United States of America and Soviet Union were locked horn to establish military hub. It could not be fulfilled by both countries.

At this time, suddenly such study is going up and higher. India, China, European Union, Japan, Israel, etc. are doing passionately to the Moon. Private players like Vodafone, Amazon, Google, etc. are investing bulk money on the Moon Mission. There are two strong reasons:-


When India launched CHANDRAYAAN – 1 in 2008. It was very successful mission for India and World both because it discovered Water Ice on the Moon. Planning of establish military post or dwelling colony would be very easy if water is available on the Moon. If water is present there, Life would be existed. Private Companies are planning tour on the Moon because water ice was found.


Helium – 3 is found on large level on the Moon. It is a source of immense energy in Nuclear Reactors. It would be very beneficial for Nuclear owned Nations. All nations which take interest on the Moon are have Nuclear power. This gas is very costly. Private Companies are also cheerful about Helium – 3.


In this way, Humans have planned to destroy natural habitat scheme. On the Earth, Industries have swollen purity of air and water. Now the Moon is set to become a soft prey of human being’s greediness. The Moon is natural and also very favourable material for earth life.


Human Beings must follow such statement. If Encroachment would be done by Natural Forces, what will happen in near future? When Nature would start destruction, no technology will stop. Earthquakes, Floods, Landslides, Volcano, etc. do what they want. Nobody can stop them. Research and Studying on the Moon is a good step, but to try to use natural satellite for energy, is a destructive idea. 

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Good knowledge


Muskan Srivastava