Due to Industrialization in Europe, Many Countries like France, Netherland, Spain, England, Portugal, etc. started taking interest in other countries for raw materials and selling their finished goods in new markets. Europeans had technology but not much raw materials. They started to search new lands for growing raw materials. Technology produced large production volume. Starting of Capitalism had been started. Magellan, Vasco de Gama, Columbus went out from Europe to search new places for raw materials and new markets for its production. European Countries reached every part of the Earth. Magellan, a Portuguese Explorer, reached same point from east to west. It was proved that The Earth is round. Columbus reached mistakenly to American Continent in 1492. Vasco de Gama searched India in 1498. These Explorers were not only searching new markets or raw materials, but also spreading Christianity in the world. Many fighting took place between Explorers and Natives of searched places.
Indian Spices were very famous in Europe from Ancient Time. Through the silk route, Trade operated from Asia to Europe. But due to Muslim Invaders, Silk route had been destroyed. So European Countries started to think new route to connect themselves to Asia. They explored Sea – Route along with Africa, America, Australia, etc.
ENTRY OF EAST INDIA COMPANY
East India Company was a private firm. It was a group of capitalists. East India Company came to India for trading. But slowly and slowly, they took lion share in Indian Administration due to lack of Unity among Indian Kings and Nawabs. Officials of Company took permission to keep a small army for their protection. This small army helped a lot to establish for East India Company’s Administration in India. British helped those kings with its small army in war who gave more rights for trade. Indian kings and Nawabs were always fighting on riff-raff issues. East India Company cashed this opportunity to win their confidence and made it granted more facilities for British. Most of stakeholders in East India Company were very influential people. They had monopoly for foreign trade.
INTERFERENCE IN INDIAN POLITICAL SYSTEM
In 1757, East India Company’s Officials did not want Bengal Nawab Siraj-ud-daulah to remain Bengal’s Nawab. They persuaded his Wazir Mirzafar if Siraj-ud-daulah was defeated in Battle of Plassey, he would be Nawab of Bengal. Mirjafar betrayed Nawab Siraj-ud-daulah in the battle field. Robert Clive hoisted the flag of British in India. Mirjafar was made the Nawab of Bengal. East India Company took permission for everything as they wanted. Ideology of East India Company was understood by Many Kings and Nawabs. East India Company’s Official started to take interest out of Bengal. They eyed on Bihar and Delhi. In 1765, Battle of Buxar took place and in this battle, Bengal Nawab Mir Quasim, Awadh Nawab Shuja-ud-daulah and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II fought collectively but they were defeated by British Hector Munro. This war cemented the power of East India Company in India for long time.
CAPTURE MAJOR PROVINCES IN INDIA
Robert Clive clinched Bengal and Munro captured all DEEWANI Rights from Mughal. In this way, it can be said that Bengal and Bihar both had come in hammer of East India Company’s rules in India. After that, Haider Ali and His son Tipu Sultan restricted British Empire, but in 1799 defeat of Tipu Sultan, there was nobody in south india who could restrict East India Company. Marathas were also brave worriers, but after the death of Nana Fadanvis, there was total anarchy among Kinghts Scindias of Gwaliar and Ujjain, Gaekwads of Baroda, Holkars of Indore and Malwa, Bhonsales of Nagpur, Meheres of Vidharbh and Puars for Dhar and Dewas. Nana Fadanvis was a diplomatic person who understood tricksters of East India Company. Due to lack of unity among Knights of Maratha Empire. One by one they were defeated by East India Company. With the defeat of the Marathas, no army power represented a threat for the Company any longer.
WELFARE PROGRAMS OF BRITISH RULE FOR INDIANS
This was a revolutionary step taken by East India Company. Although it was totally for English Youngsters. East India Company needed energetic people who could become an Administrator. East India Company was tackling many issues like custom, taxes and justice. East India Company spent bulk amount of money on its Army. War was taking place at every riff-raff things with Indian Kings and Nawabs. It was very essential to regulate such things for welfare of East India Company. To introduce Civil Service for India, it was a big decision. After that, Many Freedom Fighters of India cracked ICS (Indian Civil Service). Before this, only sons of Raja or Nawab could become administrator, it opened the door for poor to become an Administrator. Although first phase of Civil Services, it was only for English People. In second phase, Indians were included in this prestigious process.
East India Company concentrated on education in the India. The policy ran three goals. First of all to sponsor Indians in their own culture, second was to advance knowledge of India, and third one was to apply practically that knowledge for welfare of government. The first goal was started Warren Hastings. Hastings laid stone the Madrasa 'Aliya’ for the study of Arabic and Persian languages & Islamic Law in Kolkata. There was starting of Madrasa with government’s nod. The second goal was suicide bomber for East India Company. To collection information about past glory of India, it might re-organize Indians altogether. East India Company stood in India with its formulae “DIVIDE & RULE”. At last, the Benares Sanskrit College was founded in Varanasi in 1791 by Lord Cornwallis. It was attracted by many Indian Scholars and Some English Officials. The third related goal to grow the philosophy that could be better administrators. Such thought was led in 1800 to found the College of Fort William in Calcutta by Lord Wellesley. After that, Education Policy of India took place in East India Company’s Administration. It established the Poona Sanskrit College in Pune in 1821 and the Calcutta Sanskrit College in 1824. East India Company pressurized Indians to learn English Language and applied it in every educational institutions of East India Company. Purpose was to connect Indians with western culture and civilization.
Although East India Company controlled whole Bengal in the mid of 18th century but Judiciary system was donned by Nawab as the Chief Law Officer (Nawab Nazim) and his deputy as the Naib Nizam. It was established in Murshidabad. There were hierarchy system for local justice. Faujdars, Muhtasils, Kotwals, etc. worked as a Successor of His father. By this time, East India Company established three presidency in Calcutta (Kolkata), Bombay (Mumbai) and Chennai (Madras). Success of East India Company gave more power to Company and was given to authority to establish “COURTS OF JUDICATURE” by Charles II. A Charter was granted in 1683. This right was renewed in the subsequent charters granted by James II and William III in 1686 and 1698 respectively. In 1726, It was considered that European Residents needed a justice system in all presidency town and East India Company established Mayer’s Court in Presidency Court. All courts were regulated by the Court of Directors of the East India Company. In this way, Modern System of Judiciary was started in the India.
India had a lot of social evils like Sati Pratha, re-marriage denied to Widow, Child Marriage, etc. firstly East India Company did not take interest in the traditions of Hindu Religion. All were freed to practice its own tradition. Among all social evils, Sati Pratha was notorious. It was a practice when a male died, then his wife was also burnt alive on his pyre. Preparation of Sati was included to feed Cannabis and Datura (A poisonous flower) so that burnt to be female would not be sense what was going on and doing herself. Females sacrificed their life due to a social evils. It was strictly followed order of Governor General Lord William Bentinck. Lord William Bentinck ended Sati Pratha and tried his best to reform in social evils of Hindu Practices. The Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856 was enacted on the eve of first Revolution of India for Freedom. Although very few widows actually remarried. Some Indian reformers, such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, etc. had done really splendid tasks to eradicate India from social evils.
By 1836, the East India Company had courier service which connected limited communication among the Presidency towns of Fort William (Calcutta), Fort St. George (Madras), and Bombay). This service was not to connect person to person. A per 17th Act of British Government in 1837, Public Post was set up in India. Post Offices were established in the area captured by East India Company. Separate offices were built and appointed Post Master at every Post Office. In 1850, first major modification took place for communication in India. 17th Act was amended with the Indian Postal Act, 1854. A Director General was appointed to operate postal services in India. In this way, India moved first communication system among natives of India. Along with Postal service, Telegraph was started during 1820 to 1830. It was an electric communication with the help of Semaphore (An Installation was used to send optical signals). East India Company considered seriously to set up telegraph towers. Tower was to construct 100 feet high and distance between two towers was 8 kilo Meter. Although such towers were built in Bengal and Bihar, the India-wide semaphore network never took off.
A Revolutionary Transport System Railway was introduced in 1825 between the Stockton and The Darlington, first inter-city railway service in England. This Transport System was spread over in England. After huge success of Railway, British Government decided to spread over the world. East India Company was directed to establish network of Railway in its colonies. Governor General Lord Dalhousie took this responsibility to construct Railway in India for experimental because floods, storms, raining and insects could create hurdle for Railway in India. Finally first leg of the Railway in India was completed between Bombay and Kalyan in 1853, total distance 21 kilo meter. Lord Dalhousie advocated speedy work on railways in India for taking social and economic advantages. He directed 4 railway routes in India. First was from Kolkata to Lahore, second was from Agra to Bombay, third one was from Bombay to Madras, and fourth was from Madras to the south western Malabar Coast. His proposal was accepted completely by Directors of East India Company. The technology of railway is very new for Indians. There was no engineering back ground in India. All engineers were brought in from England. Those engineers were not aware about Indian Language and Culture.
The first irrigation System took place in 1817. Although this work was only expansion of previous works of the Raja and the Nawab. This project was for Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Bengal with river Ganga, Yamuna and its tributaries. There was also an irrigation system for Madras Presidency. A small dam was constructed on the river Kaveri before 1,500 years and it was known as the Grand Anicut. In 1836, Sir Arthur Cotton made dam improved and it was a lot beneficial for farmers. After that, King of Vijay Nagar Krishna Dev Raya built some dams on the river Tungabhadra. His all built dams were done all maintenance works for running it successfully by East India Company. There were a lot of irrigation works done by East India for their own profit, but it was too much profitable for India too.
At last, it can be said that East India Company took innumerable benefits from Indian Terriroty, but India developed itself from systemic growth model of England. England eradicated many social evils from India. They regulated that raw materials from India to England and finished goods from England to India would flow continuously for which Irrigation System, Transport System, Communication System, Justice System, etc. were made strong. Although it was totally done only for East India Company. If it would be seen another side that Indian Economical Structures were made strong after Renaissance (Industrial Revolution) in Europe. These all were new dawn for India. India was divided into many independence states and they were battling one another for their ego satisfaction and narrow minded thinking. Lack of Unity, they were defeated one to one by East India Company. Finally they united and revolted against East India Company in 1857. World looked India first time united.
True & knowledgeable article
बहुत खूब सर,बेहतरीन जानकारियाँ आपके आर्टिकल से उपलब्ध होती हैं।आप ऐसे ही लिखते रहें ।
new concept of knowledge